The following information is all about Aniseed Cultivation and Farming Methods.
INTRODUCTION ABOUT ANISEED:
The Aniseeds belongs to the category of the flowering plants. The aniseeds are also called as the Anise. The native places of these plants are the Eastern Mediterranean region and South-west Asia. They occur indigenous (naturally) in these places. But they can be cultivated and harvested all over the world. Aniseed belongs to the family of “Apiaceae” and genetics of “Foeniculum”.
The Aniseed herb is perennial (everlasting), the flowers of the herb are yellow and have feathery leaves. The Aniseed contain fragrance and flavour. The height of this herb or plant is 2.5 meters approximately.
Aniseed are used as flavouring agents in soups, dishes etc. It is also used as the garnishing agents for salads. The leaves of Aniseed herb are also used for garnishing. It is a good source of vitamin C and potassium. The flavour of Aniseed is similar to some other spices like Fennel, Liquorice and Star anise.
It is widely used for culinary (cooking) and pharmaceutical purposes. The cultivation of Aniseeds is done in the Rabi season as the crop is a monsoon based crop. In India, the states which cultivate Aniseeds on a large scale are Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan.
COMMON NAMES OF ANISEED:
- Hindi: Saunf.
- Tamil: Sathakuppai/Shombei/Perunjeeragam.
- Telugu: Sopu/Sompu.
- Kannada: Badi-Sopu/ Dodda Jeerige.
- Bengali: Panmohuri/ Mauri/ Methe.
- Guajarati: Variari/Warjari.
- Konkani: Shep.
- Marathi: Badishep.
- Oriya: Panmohuri.
- Punjabi: Shathapushpaa.
MEDICINAL USES OF ANISEED:
- It helps overcome indigestion.
- In reproductive system of women, the estrogens levels are boosted by Aniseed consumption.
- In the treatment of anaemia.
- For skin health improvement the Aniseeds are beneficial.
- Helps in the prevention of cancer cell development.
- Immunity power can be regained by Aniseeds.
- Blood pressure can be decreased by Aniseeds.
- For heart health Aniseeds are good.
- Aniseeds are good source of Folate, vitamin C, vitaminB-6 and potassium.
- It also helps in weight management.
- It also helps in treatment of respiratory disorders.
ANISEED VARIETIES / CULTIVARS:
These are some of the profit-making varieties of Aniseeds that can be grown:
- Gujarati Fennel-1: plant variety is tall and oblong (flat figure with unequal adjacent sides) with bushy structure. The seeds are dark green in colour. This variety of crop can tolerate the sugary disease and leaf-spots. Within 225 days this seed variety crop will be matured. The average yield of this variety is 16.0-16.5 quintals seed per hectare. This variety can sustain any kind of drought conditions or situations.
- RF-35: crop height is tall with medium-sized spreading. The seed of this variety yield is green in colour and hairless seeds. These also sustain the Sugary-diseases, leaf-spot and leaf-blight. It takes 225-230 days for the seeds to get matured. The average yield is about 13 quintals of seed per hectare.
- RF-125: It is short in size, but has compact inflorescence; the grain is long and bold. The maturity level of the crop is 110-125 days. The assumed average yield is 17 quintals of seed per hectare.
- Co-1: They are medium height variety of plants with dispersed branching; this variety of crop matures in 225 days with an approximate yield of 5.75 quintals of seeds per hectare.
- RF-101: These varieties of crop are tall with pumped stems. Seeds are bold and long. The time taken by the crop to mature is 145-160 days. The yield of the crop is 16 quintals of seeds per hectare.
ANISEED CULTIVATION METHOD:
- Climate for Aniseed Cultivation:
For the best growth and yield of the Aniseeds, cool and dry climatic conditions are needed. The temperature of 15-25 ˚C is suitable for Cultivation of Aniseeds. The seed quality depends mainly on the climatic conditions.
- Soil for Aniseed Cultivation:
All varieties of soils can be used for the cultivation of the crop. Soils which contain lime are also good for cultivation like black cotton soil and loamy soil. The rich organic matter in the soil is best for the cultivation of crop. The Aniseeds can’t be cultivated in shallow soils. Proper drainage facility should be checked at the time of selecting the soil. Getting the soil tested is better for a good profit-making farming. If pH value is in between 5.5 -7.0 then the condition for crop cultivation would be right.
- Land Establishment for Aniseed Cultivation:
3 to 4 ploughings of the land make the soil fine before planting. Farmyard manure should be added to the soil @ 20 to 25 tonnes per hectare. Weeds should be removed manually before planting the crop.
- Propagation in Aniseed Cultivation:
Propagation happens through seeds. Seeds are sown in a nursery and the seedlings are transplanted to the field. The best time to sow the seedling is mid-September to mid-October. Sowing should never be delayed which can diminish the yield of the crop. Seeds required for one hectare of land are 9-13 kgs. The distance of sowing seedlings should be 45-60 cm apart.
During June and July the seeds are sown on the nursery beds. Usually, the seedlings are transplanted in 7-8weeks time into the main field.
- Manures and fertilizers for Aniseed Cultivation:
The soil should be supplemented with 15-20 tonnes/ ha of well decomposed farmyard manure (FMY) at the time of land preparation. Equal split doses of farmyard manure of 90 kg per hectare should be applied. The first basal dose consists of 40 kg/ ha of P2o5, second and third applications are given at 30 and 60 days after sowing the crop.
- Irrigation for Aniseed Cultivation:
After sowing of the seeds first irrigation should be given immediately. Until seeds starts germination 1 or 2 light irrigations should be carried subsequently. Crop irrigation should be done during critical stages of the yield, flowering and seed formation and the minimum interval between each irrigation cycle should be 15-20 days. Water stress should be avoided but adequate water or moisture should be maintained.
- Weeding For Aniseed Cultivation:
After 1 month of sowing the weeding should be carried out. In Aniseeds cultivation weed control is critical among all other activities. The weed control can be done either mechanically or chemically. For pest control the herbicides that can be used are Pendimethalin @ 1 kg per hectare. This chemical manure can be applied as Pre-emergence application and it should be reapplied after 45 days of sowing.
- Pests and Diseases Control For Aniseed Cultivation:
These pests and diseases that are found in Aniseed Cultivation are:
- Root rot
- Drug store beetle
- Leaf blight
- Leaf spot
- Damping off
- Fusarium wilt
- Powdery mildew
Insecticidal soaps, neem oil, canola oil are natural methods to treat the diseases and pests. Sulphur sprays, bacillus thuringiensis are two chemical compounds which can also be used to treat the pest and diseases. Other measures to check the disease control is to manage the farm with proper sanitation. Destroying the infected parts or plants can also help solve the problem.
- Harvesting for Aniseed Cultivation:
After sowing of seeds, the crop would be ready for harvesting in 6 months. Usually, the umbels should be plucked then the harvesting is done. The plucking is done twice or thrice with an interval of 10-12 days. The complete harvesting time lasts for about 1 month.
- Post-Harvesting of Aniseed Cultivation:
The seeds should be dried in the sun for 1-2 days or in a shady region for 8-10 days after the harvest. After cleaning and drying the grading process is done. Storage of the seeds is done in jute bags. Seeds are stored in a frost condition with Sulphuric sprayed @ 0.1% to prevent any damage.
- Yield In Aniseed Cultivation:
The crop yield completely depends upon the soil, manure, irrigation and fertilization provided to it. The average amount of the yield is 10 to 11 quintals of seeds per hectare.
- Marketing and Packing for Aniseed Cultivation:
The marketing is most important part of Aniseed Cultivation as the Aniseeds are exported to all over the world. So the packing of the product does play an important role in marketing.
It should be packed in air tight covers or containers.
The potential to use aniseed in an essential oil form is an age old practice. The oil has antiseptic and antimicrobial properties. Aniseed oil is a household insect or pest repellent. The smell and taste of aniseed flavour its use in making dishes, drinks, candies and even scented candles. In spite of all these beneficial qualities aniseed enjoys a moderate market in the spice industry. The seeds are available at a moderate cost ($ 1- $ 4) but the oil is expensive ($ 10 – $ 11).