Barley Production Information:
The following information is all about Barley production.
Introduction to Barley
Barley is one of the cereal crops grown for staple food consumption across the globe. However, Barley is also grown for livestock fodder. Barley is a member of the grass family and is a self-pollinating crop. It is also being used for Malt production in the brewing industry. In malt Barley production, barley variety, weed management, irrigation, plant density, planting date, and fertilization plays a major role for better yield and malting quality of the crop. Commercial barley production can fetch you good profits under ideal crop cultivation practices. Barley is very important short season cereal crop after rice, wheat and maize/corn. This crop is being grown in temperate regions. Barely is an excellent drought resistant crop. The best part of Barley is that it can thrive very well in upland regions as it can ripen in cool temperatures. Usually, Barley crop is grown on steep hill slopes of Japan, Norway and Switzerland. In fact, Braley has transformed into a cash crop in some states of India.
Scientific / Botanical name of Barley
Family Name of Barley
Common Names of Barley
- Jau : Hindi.
- Orge: French.
- Gerste: German.
- Hordeum vulgare: Spanish.
- Arpa: Turkish.
- Orzo: Italian.
- Korn: Swedish.
- Eorna: Irish.
- lúa mạch: Vietnamese.
- Boli: Korean.
- Barli: Malay.
- Yava: Sinhalese.
- Mieži: Latvian.
Top 10 Barley Production Countries
- United Kingdom.
Top 10 Barley Production States of India
- Uttar Pradesh.
- Madhya Pradesh.
- West Bengal.
- Jammu And Kashmir.
- Himachal Pradesh.
Barley in Indian Languages
- Kannada: Jave Godhi.
- Hindi: Jan / Jaun.
- Gujarati: Juvar / Cheno.
- Telugu: Barli Biyyam.
Barley Varieties / Barley Cultivars
There are many varieties grown across the world. Some of the barley cultivars for Indian region are mentioned below.
- DWRUB 52.
- DWRUB 64.
- VJM 201.
- PL 172.
- PL 419.
- PL 426.
- PL 751.
- PL 807.
- BH 75.
- BH 393.
- RD 2035.
- RD 2503.
- BCU 73.
- DWRUB 64.
- NARENDRA BARLEY 2.
- GETANJALI (K1149).
- Ranjit (DL- 70).
- Karan-201, 231 and 264.
Climate for Barley Production
Barley crop needs shorter growing periods and requires an average temperature of 15°C to 18°C during the flower initiation stage. However, then annual temperature range is between 5°C to 26°C during ripening stage. This crop is very well tolerated to droughts and high temperatures. When it comes to irrigation or annual rainfall, it depends on the barley variety, and targeted yield. For optimum yield, this cereal crop requires 400 mm to 450 mm annual rainfall. Generally, the maximum utilization of water occurs in 20 to 27 days.
Soil Requirement for Barley Production
Barley crop can be cultivated in many range of soils like from heavy clay to light or sandy loam soils with a pH value of 6.0 to 7.5. However, for better yield, fertile (rich in organic matter) and deep loam soils are preferred. Avoid soils with pH values less than 6.0 as it may result in poor growth and yield. You should note that Barley crop is cannot tolerate water-logging or wet conditions, but can tolerate alkalinity in the soil compared to other grain crops.
Land Preparation in Barley Production
Land should be prepared and levelled by giving a couple of deep ploughings with the help of a tractor. Remove weeds from previous crops and prepare any channels for irrigation and bring the soil to fine tilth stage. Make sure the polughing is followed by 2 to 3 harrowing. You can add 20 to 25 tonnes of well-decomposed farmyard manure such as cow dung during the last ploughing to increase the soil fertility.
Propagation in Barley Production
Barley propagation is done through seed sowing.
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Seed Rate Barley Production
Seed rate depends on variety, and soil type.
- For irrigated crop: requires a seed rate of 35 kg/acre.
- For rain-fed crop: requires a seed rate of 45 kg/acre.
Seed Treatment for Barley Production
Seed treatment of Barley should be carried out for quick and good germination percentage. This can also help to protect from seed borne diseases.
- To protect the seed from smut diseases: Treat Barley seeds with Bavistin at the rate of 2 grams/kg of seeds.
- To protect the seed from cover smut diseases: Treat Barley seeds with Vitavax at the rate of 2.5 grams/kg.
- To protect the seed from termites: Treat Barley seeds with a 250 ml formation in 5.4 liters of water.
Sowing and Spacing in Barley Production
The best time of sowing the barley crop is from mid October to mid November. Early sowing results in good yield. Avoid late sowing.
The spacing depends on planting method and variety and soil type. However, a row-to-row spacing of 23 cm is practiced for early sowing crop. In case of late sowing, a row-to-row spacing of 19 to 20 cm should be used. Generally, the sowing depth is about 4 cm to 5 cm under irrigated crops and 6 cm to 8 cm in the case of rain-fed crops.
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You can use broadcasting method or seed drill methods for sowing.
Irrigation/Water Requirement in Barley Production
Irrigation should be provided as per crop growth stage. Make sure to maintain soil moisture from seeding to soft dough period. Avoid the water stress during jointing, booting and heading. For barley crop, 3 to 4 irrigation are required throughout its growth period. Arrange the irrigation depending on soil moisture and climate.
Manures and Fertilizers in Barley Production
Timely application of required manure and fertilziers ensures the excellent crop growth and yield. As we already mentioned in land preparation apply the FYM. Apart from that as basal application, supply the NPK in the form for Urea, SSP and Muriate of Potash.
The recommended N: P: K = 25: 12: 6 kg/acre. Apply full dose of P and K as basal and half dose of ‘N’. The remaining half dose of ‘N’ should be applied at the time of sowing.
Intercultural operations in Barley Production
Weed control is one of mandatory task needs to be carried to for better crop growth and optimum yield.
Carry out this operation during initial stage of the Barley crop. Weeds can can be controlled manually as well as chemically.
- To control broad leaf weed: apply 2,4-D (post-emergence weedicide) at the rate of 250 grams per 100 liters of water per acre.
- To control narrow leaf weed: apply Pendimethalin 30% EC at the rate of 1.4 Liter per 100 liters of water per acre.
Pests and Diseases in Barley Production
The following are some of the common pests found in Barley crop.
- Army worm.
For the symptoms and control measures of these pests, contact your local agriculture department.
The following are some of the common diseases found in Barley crop.
- Stripe/Yellow rust.
- Flag smut.
- Ear head bug.
- Powdery mildew.
Harvesting in Barley Production
The Barley crop will be ready for cutting at the end of April depending upon cultivar/variety used. Care should be taken to avoid any delay in harvesting as it may result in over ripening. The best time to harvest is when the grain moisture is about 30%. There are now Barely cutting machines just like paddy cutting. However, in small areas, you can use sharp sickles for manual harvesting.
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Yield in Barley Production
The yield of the Barley crop depends on slowing time, sowing method, soil type, irrigation, variety, climate and other crop management practices. The yield is more in irrigated crop than rain-fed crop. On an average one can obtain 20 to 25 quintals per acre.