Commercial Mango Cultivation:
The following content is about Commercial Mango Cultivation.
COMMERCIAL MANGO CULTIVATION
Mango is the most important among the tropical fruits of India and it is very popular and considered to be the choicest of all fruits grown in India. It is known as the KING OF FRUITS, owing to the delicious quality of fruit, richness in vitamins and minerals and liking to the Indian palate. It is also one of the best fruits of the world.
Mango occupies the pride place in India as the apple in temperate and grapes in sub-tropical regions of the world. Mango thus deserves to be the national fruit of India. It is also one of the most ancient fruits of the country being cultivated for the past 4000-6000 years. It is a sacred tree for Hindus (because of its blossoms used in the worship of gods and its leaves made into festoons for hanging over doorways on so many occasions.
Mango was found throughout South- East Asia and the Malayan – archipelago in early days. The Portuguese, who opened the sea routes, was responsible for the worldwide distribution of mango from Indo-Burma and indo-china regions.
Scientific name of Mango: Mangifera indica; L Family: Anacardiaceae; Origin: Indo Burma region.
Some of the Indian mango varieties:
There are nearly 1000 mango varieties in India. Of these, however, only about 20 varieties are grown on a commercial scale. The commercial varieties of mango in India are specific to different regions of the country.
The important of mangoes in Commercial Mango Cultivation
- Andhra Pradesh: Banganapalli, Suvarnarekha, Neelum, and Totapuri.
- Bihar: Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari, Fazli, Gulabkhas, Kishen Bhog, Himsagar, Zardalu and Langra.
- Gujarat: Kesar, Alphonso, Rajapuri, Jamadar, Totapuri, Neelum, Dashehari and Langra.
- Haryana: Chausa, Dashehari, Langra and Fazli.
- Himachal Pradesh: Chausa, Dashehari and Langra.
- Karnataka: Alphonso, Totapuri, Banganapalli, Pairi, Neelum and Mulgoa.
- Madhya Pradesh: Alphonso, Bombay Green, Dashehari, Fazli, Langra and Neelum.
- Maharashtra: Alphonso, Kesar and Pairi.
- Punjab: Chausa, Dashehari and Malda.
- Rajasthan: Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari and Langra.
- Tamil Nadu: Alphonso, Totapuri, Banganapalli and Neelum.
- Uttar Pradesh: Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari and Langra.
- West Bengal: Fazli, Gulabkhas, Himsagar, Kishenbhog, Langra and Bombay Green.
- Telangana Region: Alphonso, Pairi (Peter), Mahamooda, Dashehari, safeda and Goa bunder.
CLIMATE FOR COMMERCIAL MANGO CULTIVATION
- Although it is a tropical fruit, the mango equally grows well under semitropical conditions. Mango can grow from sea level to an altitude of about 1500 meters provided; there is no high humidity, rain or frost during the flowering period. Although it is a tropical fruit, the mango equally grows well under semitropical.
- Temperature, rainfall and wind velocity are the main climatic factors, which influence its growth and fruiting. It cannot stand severe frost, especially when the tree is young.
- Mango requires a frost-free dry period at the time of flowering and sufficient heat during the ripening of the fruit.
- It can grow in the temperature range of 0 0C to 45 0C but the minimum for growth lies above 10 0C, the optimum near 25 0C and the maximum at 42 0
- Most of the mango varieties thrive in places with good rainfall (75-375 cm per/annum) and dry summer. The distribution of rainfall is more important than its amount.
- However, rain during flowering is detrimental to the crop as it interferes with pollination but also encourages greater incidence of pests and diseases.
- The dry period before blossoming is conducive to profuse flowering. Strong winds and cyclones during a fruiting season can play havoc and blow away the crop completely.
SOILS FOR COMMERCIAL MANGO CULTIVATION
- Mango can be grown on a wide variety of soils, ranging from alluvial to lateritic, provided it is deep (2.0-2.5m) and well drained. Suitable pH for mango is 5.5-7.0.A soil with good drainage, permeability, a fair water holding capacity and groundwater at a depth 0f 3-4m are features of an ideal soil for mango. Very poor, shallow, alkaline, rocky and calcareous soil should be avoided.
PLANTING FOR COMMERCIAL MANGO CULTIVATION
- Planting is generally done with a ball of the earth during the rainy season in moderately rainy places and on the cessation of rains in the heavy rainfall areas. The young plants are easy to transport and to establish. Planting is done in previously dug, exposed and filled pits of 3x3x3 size. Some time wood is also burnt in the pits.
- Application of nitrogen to young plants hastens growth and before filling the pits 50 kg. of well-decomposed FYM, 2 kilograms of superphosphate is added. If white ant problem is there 100 to 150 grams of polyol power should be added per pit.
- Cow dung is applied produces too much heat and attracts white ants and hence should not be applied where white ants are a serious problem. Manure is applied 2 months before planting or 6 months after planting.
- Planting is done on a cool day and preferably in the evenings and watered immediately and staked. While planting grafts, the graft joint or the union should be 20 cm above the soil surface to prevent entry of disease-carrying organisms into the graft joint.
SPACING FOR COMMERCIAL MANGO CULTIVATION
Orchards are planted too densely and the trees grow tall and upright. Diseases and pests are common in closely planted orchards. So, yields will be low. Spacing depends on the spread of varieties.
Normally spacing adopted for grafts is 10 X 10 M and for seedlings and in very fertile soils it is 12 X 12M. Generally, the square system of planting is followed. The spacing adopted under high density planting is 5X3 / 5X2.5 / 4×4 / 3×2.52.5×2.5m. In high density planting the spacing adopted are 4.5 X 4.5 M and 2.5 x 2.5 M required.
INTERCROPS AND INTERCULTURAL COMMERCIAL MANGO CULTIVATION
Vegetables like bhendi (lady finger or okra), cowpea, potato, cucurbits and leguminous crops like groundnut and bean, dwarf banana and cover crops like sesbania and Crotalaria juncea can be raised and buried in the soil for green manuring.
Often young plants produce flowers. These are pinched off during first 3-4 years. Otherwise, the vigor of the plant is lost. Removal of weeds is required at least twice a year. Mango requires no pruning except removal of dead, diseased and dried parts and branches arising within 3 feet above the ground level. This will help in easy cultivation.
IRRIGATION FOR COMMERCIAL MANGO CULTIVATION
- The irrigation requirements of young and non-bearing trees are different from those of bearing trees. During young and non-bearing period speedy growth of the trees and expeditious development of their leaf canopy are the chief objectives to be achieved.
- This would require more frequent irrigations through ought the year than for the bearing trees. The newly planted young plants up to their first 4-6 months should secure irrigations twice in a week in hot weather. For the first 4-5 years, the irrigations must be frequent and regular though of light intensity because the root spread in the initial years is not very extensive.
- During the rainy season, the interval may be adjusted keeping in view the intensity and distribution of rainfall. In bearing trees 2-3 months preceding flowering season, ie.during October-December profuse irrigation is not advisable to induce flowering and to arrest vegetative growth.Irrigation may be beneficial from February to June. This stops the fruit drop and helps in the development of fruit size.
- When the trees are in full bearing stage, generally 2-3 irrigations are given between fruit set and fruit development. It is better to avoid irrigations before harvesting for a better quality of the fruit. Basin system of irrigation is generally followed to economize water. The basins may be connected in series or to a channel dug in-between rows.
MANURING FOR COMMERCIAL MANGO CULTIVATION
- Mango orchards are not generally manured. But if manured, the yield will be more. The chief requirements during pre-bearing age are rapid growth and the development of the strong framework. Good cropping, regular bearing, and high fruit quality are the prime objectives of bearing trees.
- For non-bearing trees, liberal doses of Nitrogen, phosphorous and reasonable amounts of potassium are to be applied. During non-bearing stage nitrogen is particularly needed in heavy quantities to support healthy and fast growth. It would be advantageous to apply the substantial portion of nitrogen in the form of organic matter, so that the texture of the soil, its moisture holding capacity and ultimately the development of roots therein may be improved. Phosphorous is needed for the development of roots, respiration and translocation of carbohydrates.
- Application of potassium will help in the development of fruit, increases fruit quality and control of fruit drop. During bearing age the manurial programme aims to secure sufficient vegetative growth early in the season for the next year‘s growth and to ensure regular bearing with superior quality. This can be achieved by the heavy dose of nitrogen a little earlier than flowering in the ON year to initiate vegetative growth and suppression of bud differentiation. So, that cropping in the ON year is reduced and the production of vegetative shoots is promoted. Mango manuring is, therefore, quite complicated problem and grower.
FOLIAR APPLICATION FOR COMMERCIAL MANGO CULTIVATION
- Promotes growth, improves fruit set, yield, and quality. The foliar spray is given immediately after the harvest of the crop urea @ 1-2% and another after flowering and at marble stage to improve fruit set and to reduce fruit drop.
TRAINING FOR COMMERCIAL MANGO CULTIVATION
- The training of mango plants in the initial stages is very essential to give them the proper shape.Especially, when the graft has branched too low, the process of training becomes very important. At least 75cm of the main stem should be kept free from branching and the first leader of the main branch should be allowed after that. The main branches should be spaced in such a way that they grow in different directions and are at least 20-25cm apart. Otherwise, there is every chance of breakage due to smaller crotch angles and heavy top.
PRUNING FOR COMMERCIAL MANGO CULTIVATION
Proper pruning of mango trees after the harvest gives the best results in terms of disease and pest management, diversion of food materials to the productive shoots and promote flowering. Thus pruning helps in obtaining regular fruiting and production of quality fruits. After giving a rest period of 15-20 days after harvesting, pruning has to be taken up.
The details of pruning are:
- Remove all the old inflorescences that flowered during the previous season. This encourages the production of new vegetative flushes early in the season, which can mature in winter and flower in the succeeding season.
- Remove all the lower branches, which are expected to touch the ground due to the weight of fruits in the ensuing season. This facilitates easy operation under the tree.
- Spray the trees after pruning thoroughly with 1% Bordeaux mixture or with 0.3% copper oxychloride as a prophylactic spray to control several diseases.
- Paste all the cut ends with 10% Bordeaux paste or with Copper oxychloride paste. Collect the pruned parts and destroy by burning.
PROBLEMS IN COMMERCIAL MANGO CULTIVATION
- Alternate (Biennial) and Irregular bearing of Mango in Commercial Mango Cultivation
It is a burning problem in mango industry since; it renders cultivation of mango less remunerative to the growers. When the mango tree bears heavy crop, the bearing season is called ON year. When it bears a poor or lean or no crop, the season is called OFF year.
- Spraying Ethrel during October at 200 ppm at 20 days interval till flowering appears.
- Spraying 1% urea immediately after harvest of fruits in rainfed orchards and prophylactic sprays against mango hopper during September- October, also helps in regularity in bearing.
- Application of growth retardants like Paclobutrazol (Culture) especially in areas like Konkan where the climate is hot and humid which results in continuous vegetative growth, inhibits the growth-promoting gibberellins within the tree with the result that vegetative growth gets restricted and trees put forth regular flowering.
- Mango malformation in Commercial Mango Cultivation
Vegetative malformation is more pronounced in young plants. Affected mango seedlings or young plants develop excessive vegetative branches which have limited growth, swollen and with very short internodes and develop abnormally compact rosette-like shoots presenting a bunchy top appearance.
Floral malformation in Commercial Mango Cultivation
The affected inflorescence becomes clustered and round. Most of the flowers lack essential organs and don‘t set fruit and its inflorescence continuously hang on the tree for months, being more green and sturdy.
Causes: Various causes like nutritional disorders, physiological, viral, fungal and acarological are reported. The available literature doesn‘t appear to support the above causes except the fungal; the only positive evidence for the cause of this is the fungal origin. I.e., Fusarium moniliforis.
- Destruct the infected small plant or plant parts
- Spraying a fungicide like Captan @ 3grams or Bavistin @ 1gram / liter of water
- Remove the affected parts by pruning 30cms below and paste with Bordeaux paste.
- Early blossoming combined with NAA 20ppm spray during October also reduces this considerably.
- Bhardhan variety of U.P. is resistant and free from this infestation.
- Spongy tissue: A non-edible patch of flesh develops in the mesocarp of the fruit and becomes spongy, sour and yellowish is termed as spongy tissue. This can be detected only after cutting the ripe fruit. It is a physiological disorder in which the fruit pulp remains unripe because of unhydrolyzed starch due to inactivation of ripening enzyme because of high temperature, convective heat, and post-harvest exposure to sunlight are the causes
- Fruit Drop: Fruit drop is the serious problem in mango and causes great loss to the growers. A tree producing several thousand panicles yields only a few hundred fruits. Only 0.1 to 0.25% perfect flowers or even less develop in to mature fruit. Fruits drop at all stages of maturity.
Measures to prevent fruit drop in Commercial Mango Cultivation
- Spraying of 2, 4-D @ 10 ppm or NAA @ 50 ppm at pea stage and at marble stage helps in preventing fruit drop.
- Maintaining sufficient soil moisture also prevents fruit drop and helps in increasing the size of the fruit. Provision of wind beaks all around the orchards, which prevents drop due to high-velocity winds at the time of fruit development.
HARVESTING In COMMERCIAL MANGO FARMING
- The fruit injured or even slightly bruised during the picking operation losses its keeping quality and becomes unfit for dispatch to distant markets. The usual practice of harvesting the fruits is knocking down the fruits or shaking the trees violently to get the fruit down need to be discouraged. If the fruit is hanging high, it should be picked up with the help of a step ladder. In no case, the picker should climb up the tree as this practice is harmful both for the tree and the picker. The fruits should always be harvested and the harvested fruits are placed in canvass bags or padded baskets and carried to the packing house. A small fruit stalk should be kept with the fruit at the time of harvesting helps in keeping the fruits in better condition in transportation and storage.
Yield In Commercial Mango Cultivation
- The yield of mango depends on no. of factors like age of the plant, soil fertility, climatic conditions, variety, type of plant material like graft or seedling, management of the orchard etc. A mango tree having an age of 5 years bears about 200 fruits.