Commercial Tomato Production:
You can find Commercial Tomato Production Information in the following write-up.
Introduction to commercial Tomato Production
Tomatoes are one of the most consumed vegetables in all parts of the world. Botanically, the tomato is considered as a berry type fruit. There are many improved commercial varieties of tomatoes cultivated. Tomatoes are native to central and South America. However, its use as a vegetable originated in Mexico. Tomatoes come in many colors from white to purple, pink, yellow, orange, mottled and even striped. Organic tomato farming is increasing year to year as people are more concerned about chemical pesticides and their side effects. People are also showing much interest in terrace tomato gardening. You can easily grow tomatoes in containers and pots. Tomatoes grown in controlled environments such as greenhouse, polyhouse and shade nets give more yield and quality. Commercial tomato production requires a basic knowledge of how to grow tomatoes, hybrid varieties of tomatoes, fertilizers used in Tomato Production, irrigation of tomato cultivation, how to control diseases in tomatoes and other tomato garden management practices.
Tomato plant description
Tomato plants are vines typically reach a height of 3 to 10 feet and have a weak stem that often spread over the ground and creep over other supports or plants. Tomatoes are grown as annuals in temperate climatic conditions. Tomato plants have branching stems, with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing. The tomato weighs approximately 80 to 100 grams. However, tomato weight depends on cultivar and tomato farming practices.
Botanical name of tomato: Solanum lycopersicum.
Family of tomato: Solanaceae.
Genus of tomato: Solanum.
Top commercial Tomato Production countries
- The United States.
Common Varieties in Commercial Tomato Production
Commonly grown varieties include Heirloom variety, Purple Haze, Roma, large cherry, Beefsteak, Big Boy, Green Zebra, Black Krim, Brandy wine and Boxcar Willie, Brandy wine and Black Cherry. to touch only on the Bs, Mortgage Lifter, tomato, and Cherokee Purple.
|Filed / Soil preparation in Commercial Tomato Production||Remove all the weeds, rocks, any other previously grown crop wastage. Give 3 to 4 deep ploughing along with cross harrowing to bring the soil to fine tilth stage. Prepare the required ridges, furrows in the planned layout.|
|Propagation in Commercial Tomato Production||Usually by seeds /seedlings (raised on nursery beds)|
|Seed rate in Commercial Tomato Production||To raise tomato seedlings on nursery beds, on an average a seed rate of 500 to 600 grams required to cover the 1-hectare field. Seed rate in tomato cultivation varies from variety to variety and planting method.|
|Seed treatment in Commercial Tomato Production||To prevent seed-borne diseases in tomato farming treat seeds with carbendazim @ 2.5 grams/ kg or Trichoderma @ 10 grams/kg of tomato seeds. It is recommended to dry the seed in the shade before planting on nursery beds.|
|Planting in Commercial Tomato Production||It can be grown throughout the year especially in controlled environments such greenhouse/polyhouse/shade nets. Tomatoes can be produced under rainfed and irrigated conditions. 1-month-old seedlings or when they attain 6 inches tall can be planted in the prepared field. Avoid water stress during transplantation.|
|Planting method of Commercial Tomato Production||Seeds can be sown in rows.|
|Spacing in Commercial Tomato Production||The spacing depends on the season of the crop, variety and plating method. Usually, autumn to winter crop requires a spacing of 60 centimeters x 75 centimeters and spring to summer crop requires a spacing of 45-centimeter x 75- centimeters.|
|Water requirement in Commercial Tomato Production||In summer and dry spells, watering should be done for every 5 days whereas in cool winters, once in 8 to10 days is sufficient. Avoid water logging as tomato roots can be effected with root rot diseases. You can form raised beds or water draining channels. in case of container Tomato Production, ensure there is enough hole underneath of the container for better aeration and water drainage. Drip irrigation is most useful to save water, fertilizers and controlling weed growth.|
|What and When to feed tomato plants||The N:P:K should be given in the ratio of 125:50:50 kg/ha is best fertilizer for Tomato Production. Make sure to supply nitrogen in split doses. You can apply the first dose at the time of planting the seedlings and 2nd one after 30 days of transplanting and the third one should be after 90 days of transplanting the tomato crop.
Manures of Tomato: 10 to 15 tonnes of well-decomposed farmyard manure (FMY) along with 250 kg of neem cake or 10 kg of carbofuran granules/ha should be supplemented at the time of last ploughing during land preparation.
|Weeding in Commercial Tomato Production||Ensure weed-free field to protect the plants for good yield and quality produce. Give 1 or 2 weedings by hand and shallow ploughing is required between rows depending on weed intensity. Mulch the tomato plant basin with dry leaves to prevent water evaporation, soil erosion, and weed growth.
|Pruning in Commercial Tomato Production||Start pruning of tomatoes when they reach 1 to 2 feet tall. Cut the tomato suckers with sharp, clean pair of pruning shears. It is recommended to prune tomato plants in the early morning.|
|Training in Commercial Tomato Production||you can use bamboo sticks or other supporting material of 1 to 2 meters for tomato training. you can change this support length as the vine grows.|
|Insect pests or bugs in Commercial Tomato Production||Root-Knot Nematode, Gram pod borer, Tobacco caterpillar, and Serpentine leaf miner.|
|Diseases in Commercial Tomato Production||Leaf curl, Powdery mildew, Damping-Off, Mosaic disease, Anthracnose, Bacterial leaf spot, Fruit canker, Septoria leaf spot, Early blight, Buckeye rot, and Wilt diseases.|
|Controlling pests in Commercial Tomato Production||Tomatoes are more prone insect pests and you need to provide appropriate treatment by identifying the actual problem. Contact an agricultural/horticultural professional for symptoms and treatment of above-mentioned tomato pests.|
|Controlling diseases in Commercial Tomato Production||Tomato plants are attacked by many diseases. Identifying actual reason for the diseases may be tough. Contact horticultural professional for symptoms and treatment of above-mentioned tomato plant diseases.|
|When and how to harvest tomatoes||It all depends on based on requirements., However, don’t keep them until they fully ripen on plants.|
|Post-harvesting in Commercial Tomato Production||Grade the fruits based on shape and size and color. Pack them well in carton boxes before transporting to local markets.|
|Expected yield of tomatoes
|Yield mainly depends on cultivar (variety) of tomato, climate, soil, and irrigation.
|Marketing of tomatoes||You can sell freshly picked tomatoes at the farm gate or through wholesale vegetable agents.|
Tomato Production tips in Commercial Tomato Production
- It is advised to preheat the soil in your garden as tomato plants grown well in heat. You can preheat the soil by covering any black plastic for 2 to 3 weeks before actual transplanting occurs.
- For stronger roots and stems to develop, planting tomato seedlings deeper is recommended. You should plant them deeper than they come in a pot or bag from the nursery. Plant the seedlings all the way up to the top few leaves.
- It is advised not to crowd tomato seedlings for allowing plenty of sunlight and air.
- Ensure that they are planted in direct sunlight areas. In case of greenhouse tomato cultivation, use artificial plant lighting, for 14 to 15 hours every day.
- In case of indoor Tomato Production or greenhouse / polyhouse tomato farming, use a fan for your seedlings to help in forming strong stems. You can create an air flow by turning the fan on seedlings for 5 to 8 minutes daily.
- Make sure to remove bottom leaves (old leaves) once the tomato plants reach a height of 2.5 feet to 3 feet.
- Avoid water stress and have them watered regular intervals based on soil moisture, climate and season.
- If you are planting tomatoes in the container, the quality potting mix is required and you must ensure to place the container in a sunny area.
The recommended companion plants in Commercial Tomato Production
- Pot marigold.
- Lemon balm.
Bottom line of Commercial Tomato Production
It is one of wonderful vegetable which has excellent demand both in local and export markets. With a proper tomato farming business plan, you can get rich quickly by growing tomatoes.