Introduction to Goat Farming Business
Raising and breeding of domestic goats is called goat farming. Goats are one of the early mammals that humans domesticated and raised for their meat, milk, fiber, and skin. Goat production can be extremely suited on poor quality grazing lands as they effectively feed on sub-quality grazing matter that is less attractive for other livestock into the quality lean meat. In areas with inadequate and low-quality vegetation, raising goatherds will be an asset for farmers and entrepreneurs. Goat farming is a lucrative and profit making business as this project requires less investment and capital compared to other livestock business. Having a huge market demand for goat products and high profits within a short time are the reasons goat farming business is rapidly growing and many new entrepreneurs started considering investing.
Human population is steadily rising, and making a noteworthy and expanding demand for extra animal protein foods. The goat can play an essential part in taking care of these demands. It is easier to increase the number of small ruminants (goats and sheep) than large stock, the opportunity costs are less for goat farming.
Entrepreneurship in Goat Farming Business
A business entrepreneur is a man who constantly recognizes openings in the market for products or services and after that develops new products and services to fulfill the distinguished needs. As a business entrepreneur one needs to imagine a fruitful goat business and after that commit resources to accomplishing the set goals.
To be a successful business goat producer, one must have good entrepreneurial abilities including recognizing business openings, setting goals, taking calculated risks, commitment to a strategy for success, and systematic planning and monitoring.
Opportunities in Goat Farming Business
Before starting your business strategy by investing or look for financing, an entrepreneur must have a clear vision on what to produce and sell from goat farming business. We get multi products from the animal such as meat, milk, fiber, manure, and skin. Do a market analysis and find out what products are locally in demand, what can and will it be viable to send products to a long distance orders and produce those products that can be sold easily. As a business entrepreneur, you need to explore all possible ways to make the most money. Below are some of the goat products to give insight about the goat farming business:
Goat Meat in Goat Farming Business: There is a continuous demand for lean, tasty meat as a protein staple in the market. And this demand is growing rapidly day by day. Based on a survey in consumption of meat globally, about 70% meat consumed if of goats meat. Raising breeds that are meat productive will be a wise decision and the meat producing goat breeds include Boer, Beetal, Matou, Black Bengal, etc. These breeds put on weight quickly and some goat farmers raise mixed breeds to improve certain qualities in their herd.
Goat Milk in Goat Farming Business: Goats milk has more nutritional values than other cattle milk. Cow’s milk contains 17% fatty acids while goat’s milk contains 35% fatty acids making it has more nutritional value. It even increases the blood platelet count in the body. The fat globules in goat milk are smaller compared to cow or buffalo milk making it easier to digest. Those people who experience cow milk or lactose intolerance can try for goat milk as it can be easily digested. As a result goat’s milk is in demand in local market. Goat’s milk can be used to produce all types of dairy products. Price of goat milk in the market is very high giving more income. If marketed properly and the demand for goat milk is high then choose breeds that are high milk productive goat breeds. Some of the high milk producing goat breeds include Anglo Nubian, Alpine, Saanen, Toggenburg, Jamunapari, and etc.
Goat Skin in Goat Farming Business: The leather industry is a big and ever growing industry, goats provide skins and used in commercial leather industry. If there is an available market that buys goats skin then it is wise to raise breeds that can produce good quality skins. Black Bengal is an excellent breed that produces high-quality leather. This breed skin is in high demand in the international market with a high market value.
Goat Fiber in Goat Farming Business: If the business intention is in producing fiber as the main product then Cashmere and Angora goat breeds will be generally appropriate. These two breeds are highly fiber productive. The correct goat breed for you relies upon your purposes behind raising goats. The breed will rely upon which of the types of a specific goat sort is the best. Get counsel from veterinarians or other breeders who have involvement in goat farming business.
Goat Manure in Goat Farming Business: Goat’s excrement is great common manure in agriculture fields. This will directly boost crop generation. Some farmers use goat manure for fertilizing the soil as it is a rich organic fertilizer. All goat breeds produce manure which will fetch extra income.
Other Sources of Income:
- Rearing goats for sales.
- By selling unwanted excess male goats live or culling in the farm.
- Renting out goats to clear shrubbery after harvesting.
- Goats milk soap.
- Goats Milk Cheese.
Breed Selection for Goat Farming Business
As per the desired product, choosing the correct breed is the most critical issue. There are diverse breeds out there which are considered as beneficial breed choice. In any case, fundamentally, it depends massively on the geographical location and climatic conditions of the area. Breeds are categorized as a pure breed and cross breed. These are the popular breeds are listed below:
Sirohi Goat: This breed is native to Rajasthan and the goats are mainly reared for meat production.
Beetal Goat: This breed has high milk production hence is mainly reared for its milk and the breed is commonly found in Punjab.
Jamunapari Goat: This breed is good for commercial farming as it is reared for both milk and meat production. It is also known as a dairy goat because of high milk yielding capacity than any other breed.
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Osmanabadi Goat: breed is also reared for both milk and meat production and is found in Maharastra.
Barbari Goat: This breed is native to East Africa but in India, it is commonly found in UP and Punjab states. Goats of this breed are beautiful to look and are generally reared for meat production.
Goat Farming Business – Goat Management
General Management: Few breeders suggested that lack of knowledge and management skills leads to 95% of death loss in goat farming. Proper fencing is very important. Goats die by their heads getting hung while trying to get out of the fence. In colder climate regions, barns need to have closed on all sides to retain the heat but with good ventilation. Goats die or get sick due to respiratory problems if there is no proper ventilation in the barns. Goats must have free and continuous access to water in the barn. In places of cold regions, water heaters are to be maintained to keep the water temperature. Goats that drink cold or chilled water will use more calories to warm up in order to maintain body temperature. Goats that are injured, broken skin or quicked hoof are prone to an entry of bacteria when the ground or barns premises are not properly maintained. Timely vaccination of all animals must be done to suppress diseases. Culling of goats is one of the important factors in management for overall productivity of the herd. Some goats kicks or will not raise kids must be under the constant radar and if such goats keep repeating must be culled or to be sold in the market. Newborn kids find difficulty to suckle milk; human intervention is required for such kids till they learn. Goats that do not have a good mouth with proper teeth, excessive feet growth, bony abnormalities, sterile does, or bucks that do not have well-formed testicles must either be culled or sold off in the market at the earliest.
Pregnant Goat Care and Management in Goat Farming Business: Pregnant doe must be isolated from the regular herd. Ensure the goats do not fight with each other as sometimes it may lead to miscarriage or death and avoid not mixing with recently aborted animals. Pregnant animals must be well taken care of by providing adequate nutrients, easily digestible and with laxative diets. Milk-producing goats must be dried off at least six to eight months before expected kidding. Prepare doe that is shortly in due to deliver by clipping the hair around the udder regions, hind regions and tail for cleanliness.
Newborn Kids Care and Management in Goat Farming Business: Clean the newly born kid with cotton or rags by gently rubbing to remove the placental membrane on the kids’ body and clean the nostrils. Place the kid upside down for few seconds by holding its hind legs, this helps cleaning the respiratory tract. Apply tincture iodine on the end portion of umbilical cord for disinfection and repeat the same after 12 hours. Kid attempts to rise up and stand while it takes about 30 minutes to start walking. Few kids after the birth struggle to suck milk from doe’s udder, human intervention in assisting the kids to drink colostrum within half an hour is highly recommended. Care must be given in the first two months especially if harsh weather conditions exist. All the needed vaccinations must be administered at the right growth stages. By eight weeks kids must be weaned. For meat production, male kids must be castrated.
Doe Management in Goat Farming Business: Doe under good feeding and management conditions can give birth to kids twice in a year with a gestation period of about 148 to 153 days. The breeding season is spread all through the year, the doe comes into heat on an average of 21 days and the duration may last two to three days.
Breeding in Goat Farming Business
Selection of Goats for Breeding in Goat Farming Business: Choose goats having 2 dental ages while purchasing goats for business farming and age of goat can be estimated from its teeth. A healthy goat has broader back with broader rump and soft and shiny skin.
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Females must have wide roomy hind quarter gives an indication of good udder development. Avoid goats that have over the short or undershot jaw, broken mouth, meaty udder, and blind teat goats for breeding. Doe’s having good mothering instinct, well-formed pliable udder with active foraging habit, and having the ability to produce two or three kids in parturition must be selected. Female that is well grown with good blended udder and ewes when reached 70% of their average adult body weight should be mated. Breeding very young ewes will produce weak kids that are prone to disease and leading to production loss.
Bucks for breeding should be in good body condition. They must be masculine with strong legs and free from abnormalities. The libido of the buck is very important to achieve desirable breeding. Both testicles intact in the scrotum along with good libido are good for breeding.
Reproductive Parameters in Goat Farming Business: Goats that are six to eight months old are ready for breeding. Females come to heat after 21 days with a gestation period of about 150 days. The estrous period is 19 to 21 days and lasts for 34 to 38 hours.
Estrous Signs in Doe: When a doe comes into heat, one can observe discharge and reddening of the vulva. Females start seeking males, wagging their tails and try mounting other animals. They bleat frequently and get into standing position for mating.
Bucks Behavior when Doe’s in Estrous: Bucks get attracted to doe’s which are in heat either by smell, sight or sound. They sniff the vulva and start curling of upper lip with an extended neck. They begin to bite and pulling hairs at the sides. They paw the females by straightening one front leg they raise and lower in striking motion and soon mount and mate.
Economics in Goat Farming Business
Start-up Project Recommendations in Goat Farming Business:
|Unit Size||50 Doe’s ( Female Goats)|
|Breeds||2 Bucks (Male Goats)|
Space Requirement in Goat Farming Business: Animals must be protected from rain, cold, and stray animals and for this reason, the animals are kept in a clean, dry, and solid ground with cheap shelter. Below is the table for space and cost:
|Type of Goat||Number of Goats||Space per Goat in sq.ft||Total Space||Rate per Sq.ft||Cost in Rs.|
Cost of Animals in Goat Farming Business:
|Goat||Rate||Cost in Rs.|
|Does||50 x 1500 each||75,000|
|Bucks||2 x 2000 each||4,000|
|Goat||Feed per Goat||Total Requirement||Cost per Kg in Rs.||Total Cost in Rs.|
|Does||6.75||6.75 x 2 x 50||4||2,700|
|Bucks||7.5||7.5 x 2 x 2||4||120|
|Kids||3.75||3.75 x 1 x 68||4||1,020|
Feed Requirement in Goat Farming Business: In rural India, most of the goats are traditionally reared by taking them out into open fields and lands for feeding. So, not much attention is given towards their feed and fodder. However, for proper breeding, green fodder and concentrate are given. Concentrate requirement for does and bucks is given for two months while one month for kids in a year.The cost of green fodder is estimated as Rs.1000/- per month.
The total cost of feed in goat farming in one year = Green Fodder + Concentrate
= 12000 + 3840 = Rs.15, 840 per annum.
Cost of Project in Goat Farming Business:
|Particulars||Cost in Rs.|
|Water feeders, tank and other Miscellaneous||1,000|
|Miscellaneous and Contingencies||500|
|Cost of animals including transportation, insurance||85,000|
Sale in Goat Farming Business: Sale from the second year
|S.No||A. Sales Realization||Amount in Rs.|
|1||Sale of Adult Doe 15 nos @ 1500||22,500|
|2||Sale of Buckling 60 nos @ 2000||1,20,000|
|3||Sale of Doeling 45 nos @ 1500||67,500|
|B. Cost of Production|
|1||Fodder and Feed cost||15,840|
|4||Labor and Staff||24,000|
Note: This is not actual figures. The figure is for project estimation and for planning. This profit is for selling live goats while excluding milk sales, manure, cheese, skin, and etc.
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Loans and Subsidies in Goat Farming Business:
Goat entrepreneurs can avail bank loans with subsidies. Loans can be availed depending on the assets, project plan and other technical parameters submitted in the undertaking report. Contact NABARD or regional Grameena banks for more information on subsidies and loans in goat cultivating business.
Analyzing the level of key financial inputs and outputs with their relationships can give significant farming insights to goat entrepreneurs. Correlations of measures each year (year to year) can flag whether the goat business money related performance is in profits or loss.
Bottom Line of Commercial Goat Farming Business: Proper Goat Farming Business Plan, Hard work, Dedication is the success of goat farmers.