Green Beans Growing Guide:
The following content details about green beans growing.
Introduction to Green Beans Growing
Green beans are a warm season crop grown for its immature seed pods. Green beans are classified into groups by their growth habit, one it’s called Bush beans (dwarf) and the other is pole beans (climber). Dwarf beans are short plants growing up to 60 cm tall. This bean is commonly grown as commercial crop as they produce pods in a short period of time and then cease to produce. Pole beans are vines that need trellis for support as they grow. Beans are a popular vegetable crop grown in many regions of the world for its edible dry seed and immature pods. It is a herbaceous annual plant and are native to semi-tropical regions of South America and Central America. Green beans are tasty and easy to grow plants. Though most of the varieties are green, pod color also comes in purple, red, streaked and yellow varieties. There are almost 130 varieties of beans. The plant leaves are broad green in color and white or yellow flowers that turn into fruits. The fruits or pods grow to 10 to 15 cm long. The pods are harvest while they are immature.
Scientific / Botanical Name of Green Bean
Family Name of Green Beans
Other names of Green Beans
Snap bean, string bean, French bean, garden bean, haricot bean, pop bean, flageolet bean, and field bean.
Green Bean in Indian Languages
Gujarati – લીલાવટાણા(Līlāvaṭāṇā).
Malayalam – പച്ചപയർ(paccapayar).
Tamil – பச்சைபீன்ஸ்(Paccaipīṉs).
Kannada – ಹಸಿರುಬೀನ್ಸ್(Hasirubīns).
Telugu – ఆకుపచ్చబీన్స్(Ākupaccabīns).
Bengali – সবুজমটরশুটি(Sabujamaṭaraśuṭi).
Marathi -हिरव्याशेंगा (Hiravyāśēṅgā).
Punjabi – ਹਰੀਫਲੀਆਂ (Harīphalī’āṁ).
Urdu – سبزپھلیاں.
Green Beans Varieties / Green Beans Cultivars
- Dwarf bean variety (bush bean): Pencil wonder, bountiful, arkakomal, pusaparbati, prider, contender.
- Vine bean variety (pole bean): VPF 191, premier, keatuki wonder.
Climate for Green Beans Growing
Green bean is a warm season crop but dislikes hot conditions and very sensitive to frost. In temperatures 35° C and above with hot dry winds will cause shedding of flowers and fruits resulting in less yield. And at temperatures below 7° C, the quality of fruits is low, short, puffy and malformed. The plant grows well in temperature 16° to 28° C and 20° to 30° C for germination.
Soil Requirement for Green Beans Growing
Beans grow on a wide variety of soil types from sandy to heavy clayey with proper drainage. For optimum growth and successful yield, sandy loam to loam soils are preferred. Avoid growing green bean in brackish soils and soils with high boron content. Soils pH must be in range 5.5 to 6.0 for growing.
Land Preparation in Green Beans Growing
Prepare the land by plowing 4 o 5 times at a good depth and tilth. Incorporate land with well rotten farm yard manure or compost in the last plow and form beds of convenient size.
Propagation in Green Beans Growing
Propagation of green bean is done by seed.
Seed Rate in Green Beans Growing
Seed rate depends on row width, irrigation type, season and variety (dwarf and runner). Seed rate varies 50 kilogram to 80 kilogram per hectare.
Season of Green Beans Growing
Based on the region in the country green bean is sown in June to July and January to February in the plains while in hilly regions its sown in March to early May.
Sowing and Spacing in Green Beans Growing
Green been is generally sown directly in the field in a depth about three to five centimeter in sandy soil and two to three centimeter in heavier soils. Dwarf beans are planted in single row with 10 to 15 cm spacing between plants. Pole bean will need trellis or teepee for support to grow. Plant seed with 15 cm apart along the fence / trellis and at a rate of six to eight seed per teepee. Water the field as soon as seeds are sown.
Green Beans Growing in Greenhouse
Greenhouse growing of Green Beans offers distinct advantages of quality, productivity and favorable market prices to the growers at regions where days get cold and dark.Prepare beds in greenhouse by forming raised beds of about 100 cm wide and 25 to 30 cm in height with desirable length. Place trellis or mesh for support in the center of the bed. Sow seeds along the support with 15 cm apart. Arrange drip irrigation running on either side of trellis. Green bean is a heat loving plant cannot take frost hence idle to grow commercially in greenhouse. Green bean can be grown all through the year by maintain right temperature and humidity in the greenhouse. Provide teepees or support for pole bean to grow. A green house is a great asset to grower enabling to make the most of the little natural resources available to grow green beans in odd season.
Green Beans Growing in Container
Green bean can be grown in container if it’s
or bushy variety. Gardeners having small spaces must get container size depending on pole variety or bush variety growing. Pole beans need a container with a depth of 20 to 24 cm whereas bush beans can go with 15 to 18 cm depth. Nine plants can be planted in a 30 to 32 cm diameter pot. Container must have proper drainage holes and filled with potting mix or compost soil. Unglazed pots are recommended as they breather and allow evaporation of excess water and dark colored pots will retain soil temperature to warm. Sow seeds that grow well in container and they will germinate in five to eight days. Place the plants where the sunlight is more.
Irrigation in Green Beans Growing
Water the field as soon as seeds are sown and after three days. Depending on climatic conditions and growth stages water requirement can vary considerably however adequate water must be given during the flowering and pod set stages. Usually once in a week watering can be given.
Manures and Fertilizers in Green Beans Growing
Bean being legumes they can fix some of its own nitrogen but still incorporate field with organic matter. Mix about 25 tonnes of rotten old farm yard manure in the last plow of the field. The fertilizer requirement is considerably low provided the phosphorous (P) and Potassium (K) levels are reasonably high in the soil by confirming through soil test. For high yield and healthy plant growth the plants need to be provided with 85 kilogram of Nitrogen (N), 120 kilogram of Phosphorous per hectare must be applied before sowing. Apply another light top dressing of Nitrogen of 30 kilogram per hectare two to three weeks after emerging of seedling.
Intercultural Operations in Green Beans Growing
Intercultural operations must be carried to control weeds through manual hoeing and by correct use of pre and post emergent registered herbicides from the local nursery store. Weeds compete for nutrients, water and sunlight and some of them might be hosts to certain pests and diseases or a home to insect pests. Weeding must be given at 25 days and 45 days after sowing and the crop is earthed up after each weeding.
Pests and Diseases in Green Beans Growing
Insects and Pests in Green Beans Growing
- Aphids and Thrips are often referred as plant lice and their presence go undetected until after significant damage had been done. They are small tiny insects usually found on the undersides of the leaves. Thirps are small flying insects unlike aphids and both pests feed on by sucking sap from leaves. Though they may not make the plant to die but often cause stunted growth and puckered, speckled leaf surface. To control, spray 1 ml of Methyl demeton 25 EC or Dimethoate 30 EC in one litre of water.
- Pod borerare also known as legume pod borer are destructive pests. Larvae or caterpillars of moths are bluish green in color. The young larvae feed on the leaves and as they mature they work their way into the stems making the stems woody. At pupae they enter into the surface of soil becoming moths. To control pod borer spray three times every two weeks with 2 gram ofCarbaryl 50 WP in one litre of. Dust with Carbaryl 10 D at the rate of 2.5 kilogram per hectare.
- Ash weevil are small insects when infected the damage can be identified by notching of leaf margins. Grubs feed on roots causing wilting of plants and death of plants. To control, spray1.5 ml of phosalone 35 ECin one litre of water. Apply 25 kilogram per hectare of lindane 1.3 D before planting.
- Whiteflyespecially in hilly regions appear during May to August. The insects are found in large numbers underside of leaves and feed on by sucking sap from the leaves causing stunted plant growth and leaves turn yellow and fall immaturely. Crop yield is reduced as plant becomes weak and susceptible to diseases. To control place 20 sticky traps of polythene sheets coated with castor oil to attract the white flies.
Diseases in Green Beans Growing
- Powdery mildewis one of the most irritating fungaldiseases and will be high in damp weather conditions. In beans it’s such a common occurrence with powdery patches and greyish spots are found on the leaves and new shoots. Mildew invades the insides of the plants and spreads rapidly in epidemic proportions. Powdery mildew can be controlled by spraying 2 grams of Wettablesulphurin one litre of water or dust Sulphur at 25 kilogram per hectare.
- Rust is a fungal disease when infected reddish-brown spots appear on plant leaves, pods, and shoots. Wilted foliage and young deformed bean pods are other symptoms of rust fungus. Rust fungus can be controlled by dusting Sulphur at 25 kilogram per hectare.
- Anthracnose is a major fungal disease causing serious crop loss. When it is infected causes poor seed germination and poor seedling vigor. The grown seedlings have dark brown to black sunken lesions on the cotyledons and on tender stalk causing stunted plant growth and sometimes the seedling dies. Anthracnose can be controlled by spraying 2 gram of Mancozeb or 1 gram of Carbendazim or 2 gram of Chlorothalonilin one litre of water over the field.
- Leaf spotis a serious fungal disease on beans. The disease infects almost all of the plant parts including leaves, petioles, stems and fruit. Symptoms are most recognizable when lesions on leaves appearing as brown spots with a tan or silvery centre between major veins on the leaf. Leaf spot can be controlled by spraying 2 gram of Mancozebmixed in one litre of water.
- Root rotis also one of the major diseases in green bean. They are caused by a complex of soil borne fungi and their occurrence is unpredictable. Effected bean plants may be stunted and turn yellow showing signs of malnourishment. It can be found in young seedlings as well as even on a matured plant. Root rot can be controlled by drenching with 1 gram of Carbendazim perlitre in the root zone.
Harvesting in Green Beans Growing
Harvesting of beans depends on market demand for fresh market or for mature seeds. Usually crop is ready for harvest from 50 days after transplanting or emergence. Green beans can be harvested manually or mechanical while for fresh market immature pods are snapped manually. Harvesting is done early morning or late evening when it is cool. Harvesting of immature pods can be done as many as four times or even more per season and picking can last up to 10 to 25 days depending on variety. Harvested pods must be hydro cooled or other cooling technique for field heat removal. Harvested pods are sensitive to heat around and deteriorate rapidly in quality. They must be transported immediately to fresh market or stored in cooling storage rooms. For long distance market they must be transported in refrigerated vehicles.
Storage in Green Beans Growing
Green beans after harvest have short shelf life and the quality is easily affected by surrounding heat. They are not well suited for normal storage conditions. For export the pods are stored in a moisture proof, airtight containers for pod freshness. Pods are stored at 5° to 8° C with a relative humidity of at least 95% refrigeration. Bean pods can be stored 12 to 15 days depending on storage conditions.Pods are prone to chilling injury if stored in temperature below 5°C.
Yield in Green Beans Growing
Yield varies depending on climatic conditions, plant variety, farming techniques. A farmer usually can expect a yield about eight to 10 tonnes per hectare in 90 to 100 days.
Marketing in Green Beans Growing
Green beans can be marketed at an immature stage when the seeds are not fully developed for fresh market. Tender, fleshy, straight 10 to 15 cm long sizable pods and darker green color ones have good market demand. Bean pods are marketed directly in the local market or exported through marketing agency.Consumers look for quality and attractive package, Pods must be free from insect or disease damage as customers buy on looks.
Tips in Green Beans Growing
- Beans must be sown in moderately rich soil with organic matter
- Beans are legumes and supplemental fertilizers are not much required as they fix their own nitrogen.
- Plants rot in cool, damp soil. Dark containers are preferred to warm the soil.
- Water the soil immediately after seed sowing.
- If planting pole bean variety arrange trellis or mesh or pole for support to grow.
- Apply mulch around the stem base to retain soil moisture as bean plant has shallow roots.
- Although beans fix their nutrient, composted manure as side dressing must be applied about half way through their growing season.
- While planting choose disease resistant variety.
- Harvesting can be delayed by two to three weeks when grown under cooler environment.
- Picking of immature pods can start within 50 to 60 days when grown in sunlight and warm environment.