Home / Farming & Gardening / Growing Apples, Cultivation Practices, Planting Methods
Growing Apples.
Growing Apples.

Growing Apples, Cultivation Practices, Planting Methods

Introduction of Growing Apples:

The following details are about Growing Apples.

The well known fruit all over the world is Apples. Apple tree is a deciduous tree. The fruit is sweet in taste and is an edible variety. The Apple is a fleshy fruit. It is cultivated all over the world. The genus of Apples is from Malus. The scientific name of Apples is Malus domestica. The Apples belongs to the Rosaceae family. They are largely grown from the seed. The propagation is done by grafting on rootstock also. There are more than 7,500 cultivars of Apples. These Apples are classified broadly into:

  • Cider varieties
  • Cooking varieties
  • Dessert varieties

Each and every variety is different in colour. They are graded as per the taste, size, colour, aroma, smoothness and also crisp and tanginess. Apples are a good source of high sugar, mildly acidic and very low in tannin.

When the Apples are ripening the ovary and the surrounding tissues will become fleshy and can be consumed.  The Apples are cooked in many varieties and can also be consumed fresh.

Characteristics of an Apple plant:

Characteristics of an Apple plant.
Characteristics of an Apple plant.
  • Apple tree can be reached up to the height of 5 – 10 m, but the size of the tree is small to medium.
  • The leaves of the tree are oval in shape; the length of the leaf is 13 cm and the width of the leaf is 7 cm.
  • Flowers are in many varieties, as there are different colors and shape of the flowers so the flower description of Apple tree is difficult.
  • The fruit, Apples are round in shape with an average diameter of 5 – 10 cm. They are in red, green or yellow.

Properties of Apples:

  • The energy content in an Apple is 218 kcal.
  • Apple has carbohydrates of 13.81 g
  • Fat present in an Apple is 0.17 g.
  • The protein content in Apples is 0.26 g
  • The Apples contain these minerals they are Magnesium, Iron, Calcium, Manganese, Potassium, Phosphorous, Zinc and Sodium.
  • The vitamins that are enclosed in an Apple are Vitamin A, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B9, Vitamin C, Vitamin E and Vitamin K

Cultivars/varieties of Apples:

These are some of the varieties that are grown popularly all round the world.

Gala:

  • These have originated in New Zealand.
  • They are crisp in nature, sweet in taste, with pink – orange stripes.
  • But the top of the fruit is pretty yellow in the background.
  • They are formed by cross – pollination of Kidd’s orange and golden delicious Apples.
  • They are grown in the month of July – August.
  • This variety is widely used in snacks, salads, beverages, sauce, and in baking.

Golden delicious:

  • These originated in Clay Country, West Virginia.
  • They are crisp in nature, sweet in taste, with golden skin.
  • But the top of the fruit is pretty gold in the background.
  • These grow from the seeds.
  • They are grown in the month of July – August.
  • This variety is widely used in snacks, salads, beverages, sauce, and in baking.

Cripps pink:

  • These originated in Australia.
  • These varieties of Apples are crunch in nature and sweet in taste.
  • Look of this variety is bright and attractive.
  • The skin of the Apples is pink in colour.
  • They are formed by cross – pollination of Golden delicious and Lady Williams’s Apples.
  • They are grown in the month of July – November.
  • This variety is widely used in snacks, salads, beverages, sauce, baking and freezing.

Honey crisp:

  • These originated in Minnesota.
  • These varieties of Apples are crispy in nature and sweet in taste.
  • Look of this variety is bright red skin with pale green mottled.
  • They are grown in the month of May – September.
  • This variety is widely used in snacks, salads, beverages, sauce, baking and freezing.

Red Delicious:

  • These originated in Peru and Lowa.
  • They look attractive as they are bright red in colour.
  • Sometimes the skin is striped.
  • The texture of the fruit is crunchy and mildly sweet in flavour.
  • They are grown from the seedlings.
  • Widely grown in July – August.
  • This variety is widely used in snacks, salads, beverages, sauce, baking and freezing.

Fuji:

  • These originated in Japan.
  • These varieties of Apples are crunch in nature and sweet in taste.
  • Look of this variety is bright and attractive.
  • The skin of the Apples is pale red in colour.
  • They are formed by cross – pollination of Red delicious and Ralls Janet Apples.
  • They are grown in the month of July – August.
  • This variety is widely used in snacks, salads, beverages, sauce, baking and freezing.

Soil and climate requirements for Growing Apples:

Climate Required To Grow Apples.
Climate Required To Grow Apples.

For growing the Apples the soil should contain light acidic content and so loamy soils are used. The pH value of the soil for Growing Apples is 5.5 to 6.5. The soil must contain rich organic content. The soil should be capable of holding good moisture content and should be aerated. Well drained soil is highly preferable.

While the Apples grown in cooler as well as in moderate climates, the number of hours that are required for Growing Apples in cool climate is 1000-1500 during the winter season. The hours differ as per the variety being cultivated.  Hot or warm weather is not suitable for the Growing Apples, but abundant sunshine is required during cultivation. The temperature required for Growing Apples is 21 – 24˚C. The average rainfall  required for Growing Apples is around 100 – 125 cm.

Land preparation and planting for Growing Apples:

The land should be prepared properly at first before the cultivation begins. To give fine texture to the soil, land should be ploughed and harrowed. After tilling and levelling, the soil should be manured properly with decomposed farmyard manure. In the main field, proper drainage channels should be prepared so that excess water can be drained out.

The dimensions of the pits dug in the land should be 1 m x 1 m x 1 m and these should be prepared before one month of transplantation. Farmyard manure (FMY) and soil should be filled in the pits. The plants are planted in a square or hexagonal system. Light irrigation should be given after planting the plants.

The planting is done usually in January or February. For different varieties there are different planting densities. Depending upon the variety the plant density can be 200, 500 or 1200 per hectare of land.

Propagation method for Growing Apples:

The propagation of the Apples is done by the budding or through grafting. Selection of rootstock and scion should be perfect. At the nursery, the union and the grating/budding should be done properly with much care. The plants are transplanted to the main fields when the roots are developed completely.

Propagation of Apple Trees.
Propagation of Apple Trees.

Manure and fertilization method in Growing Apples:

After planting, decomposed farmyard manure should be applied. The micronutrients like nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorous should be mixed in appropriate doses and should be supplied as and when the plant requires. Along with the micronutrients, the micronutrients should also be provided so that there would be no deficiency. The soil should be tested so that the nutrients which are required by the soil can be known.

Irrigation methods in Growing Apples:

The most important periods of irrigation of the plants are during flowering and fruit bearing stages. In summer, irrigation should be given at an interval of 8-10 days. But in winter, irrigation can be given with 3-4 weeks interval. During the rainy season, irrigation should be given without any water-logging as over water logging can harm the tree. But tree doesn’t need a heavy irrigation in the rainy season. When the moisture content seems to be low, then a light irrigation should be given to keep the soil moisture level intact.

Flowering and pollination in Growing Apples:

To achieve good fruit set effective and efficient pollination should happen. Some fruits set by self-pollination, but for Apples the fruit setting is done by cross – pollination. When the flowers bloom, Apples starts cross – pollinating. In the pollination process the honey bees play a vital role. The work of honey bees is usually done at a temperature of 18˚C while in cool climates and in rainy condition the bees move to the hives which results in poor pollination. Pollination can also happen by the grafting process. The grafting pollinators should be grafted on the top of the less pollinating variety.

Apple Tree Flowering.
Apple Tree Flowering.

Intercultural methods in Growing Apples:

Weeding:  Weed control around the field helps in deterring pests in the field. The below measures can be used for effective weed control.

  • Before planting, emerging weeds can be destroyed by the use of pre-emergence herbicides.
  • The grass which is around the crop should be killed, but it shouldn’t harm the crop. We should select the herbicides in a proper way.
  • The weeds can also be removed manually.
  • Before the weed plant starts to spread using the contact herbicides if necessary.

Pruning: The process of pruning is done during the month of November.  The Apples should be harvested during June – July. If the pruning is done in January then the harvesting should be done in July – September.

Intercultural Operations of Apple Trees.
Intercultural Operations of Apple Trees.

Training: The Apple tree can be trained to the open center system.

Mulching: The weeds can be controlled by mulching with black alkathene or hay, which is effective in controlling weeds during cool climates and also conserves the moisture level of the soil.

Inter-cropping: In order to improve the soil texture and nutrient status, certain crops should be grown along with young Apples trees  such as the sunflower and beans.

Pest and diseases control measures in Growing Apples:

Apple Tree Care.
Apple Tree Care.

The pest that affects the Apple trees are San Jose Scale, White scale and wooly Apples aphids, blossoms thrips pests.

Control of the pests:

  • Disease resistant rootstocks should be planted.
  • Intercultural operation should be maintained perfectly.
  • Plants should be sprayed with chemicals like carbaryl, fenitrothion and chloropyriphos etc.

The diseases that affect the Apple trees are Collar rot, Apple scab, and Sclerotius blight, crown gall, cankers and die-back diseases.

Control of the diseases:

  • If any symptoms of the disease are found, then the part of the plant should be destroyed so that the plants can’t transfer the diseases to other plants.

Harvesting techniques in Growing Apples:

Harvesting Apples.
Harvesting Apples.

Based on the variety of the Apples, harvesting is done in between January and October. These factors help the farmer for harvesting the Apples:

  • Ease of picking
  • Colour
  • Firmness

The key for the long life of Apples is that they should be harvested in time and should be stored correctly at proper temperature.  The fruit may get delayed due to cloudy weather, cool climates or drought conditions. The Apples are harvested when the fruit pulp gets firm and crispy.

Post harvesting techniques in Growing Apples:

Cleaning: Apples are cleaned by immersing them in a chemical solution like calcium chloride  @ 3-6%, thiabendazole solution @ 1000-2500 mg per kg and ethoxyquin solution @ 0.25 – 0.35%.

Storing: The storage life of an Apple is high when compared to the other fruits as they can be stored for 4 – 8 months. Fruits should be stored in a cold room with temperatures of -1.1˚C – 0˚C and the humidity maintained in the room is around 85 – 90%.

Pre cooling: Apples are placed in a cool and ventilated room. The fruit should be moisture free while packing and also the fruit should be packed according to the grading standards and in different cartoon boxes.

Transportation: Transportation of Apples is done by the road trucks.

Marketing: Apples’s market value is determined by their size, shape, weight and maturity. In supermarkets the Apples are sold as sections or as whole fruit.

Yield in Growing Apples:

The yield of the Apples ranges between 10 – 20 kg per year from a single tree.

Read: Grape Farming Project Report.

One comment

  1. Thank you for updating our information for growing the Apple Products and Cultivating them, but mainly which Fertilizers and Bio Fertilizer and Organic Fertilizers are really very important for increasing the Crop Production

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