Growing Ginger Root:
The following write-up is all about Growing Ginger Root.
Introduction to Growing Ginger Root
Ginger is one of the best commercial spice crops grown in the world, especially Asian countries. When it comes to importing, the UK, the United States, and Saudi Arabia are top importers of ginger in the world. This crop is grown for its aromatic rhizomes. Ginger can be grown organically, however, it is very expensive and time-consuming. Organic ginger has an excellent demand both in local and export markets due to its medicinal values and health benefits. With a good ginger farming business plan and cultivation practices of ginger, one can expect decent profits in commercial spice industry. To be successful in commercial Growing Ginger Root, you should consider some Growing Ginger Root basics like what kind of climate is required for Growing Ginger Root, which soil type is best for Growing Ginger Root, when to plant ginger roots, how to prepare the soil for Growing Ginger Root, When to water ginger plants, how to control pests and diseases in ginger, when to harvest ginger root, and how to market ginger root.
Marketable Ginger Forms
- Raw ginger.
- Dry ginger.
- Bleached dry ginger.
- Ginger powder.
- Ginger candy.
- Ground ginger.
- Ginger squash.
- Ginger oil.
- Ginger oleoresin.
- Ginger paste.
- Ginger flakes.
Ginger Plant Description
Ginger is a herbaceous perennial root plant. Ginger stems can reach a height of 3 feet (1 meter tall) bearing narrow green leaves and yellowish flowers. Ginger belongs to the family of “Zingiberaceae” and genus of “Zingiber”. Ginger plants originated in the tropical Indian sub-continent to South Asia.
Scientific / Botanical Name of Ginger
- Zingiber officinale Rosc.
Common Names of Ginger
- Ginger / Ginger root (In most of the English countries).
- Jeung (Chinese).
- Adi/ Adrack (Hindi, India).
- Jabe (Indonesia).
- Ung (Vietnamese).
- Gember (Dutch).
- Gingembre (French).
- Ingwar (German).
- Zenzero (Italian).
- Chukku (Malesian).
- Jengibre (Spanish).
Top Ginger Root Production Countries
- Taiwan Province.
Ginger Varieties / Ginger Cultivars
- Crepe Ginger.
- Red Button Ginger.
- White Ginger.
- Torch Ginger.
- Kahili Ginger.
- Pineapple Ginger.
- Rio-de-Janeiro Ginger.
- Thingpui Ginger.
- Wynad Ginger.
- Suprabha Ginger.
- Nadia Ginger.
- Maran Ginger.
The above said are some of the popularly grown varieties in the world. However, there are many hybrid/improved varieties are developed specifically for the region depending on climate. For suitable variety, talk to horticulture professional in your area.
Where Can We Grow Ginger Root?
- Indoors (Containers / Pots).
Climate for Growing Ginger Root
Climate plays a very important role in commercial Growing Ginger Root. Ginger prefers warm and humid climate for optimal growth and yield. Ginger roots can be grown in tropical regions of the world from the sea level to an average altitude of 1,500 meters mean sea level. Ginger roots can be grown throughout the year in a greenhouse and polyhouse environment. In the outdoors, they can be grown both under rain-fed and irrigated conditions. The Ginger root crop requires a moderate rainfall at plating/sowing time till the rhizomes sprout. It is good to have fairly heavy and well-distributed rainfall during the growth period. You must stop watering or dry climate is required for a month before harvesting ginger root.
Soil for Growing Ginger Root
- Friable sandy loam with the best organic matter.
- Friable clay loam with the best organic matter.
- Friable red loam with the best organic matter.
- Friable lateritic loam with the best organic matter.
- Ideal Soil pH: 6.0 to 6.5.
Note: In commercial Growing Ginger Root, a soil test is essential for knowing the soil fertility and other factors.
Land / Field / Soil Preparation for Growing Ginger Root
- In commercial Growing Ginger Root, minimum tillage operations should be carried out.
- Ensure weed-free filed.
- Prepare beds with 3.3 (one meter) feet width, 15 cm height, and with convenient length.
- These beds should be prepared in such a way that any additional water will drain off easily.
- Leave spacing of 45 cm between each of the beds.
- It is advised to expose these beds for sun for a couple weeks as it can kill any pests as well as make the soil dried off.
- At least 30 to 40 days before planting the ginger roots, use polythene sheets to cover the prepared moist beds in the field. This is useful to control soil-borne pests and diseases.
Growing Ginger From Root and Planting in Growing Ginger Root
Quality and disease-free seed rhizomes are used in ginger root planting. The selected rhizomes should have at least 3 sprouts each with 5 to 6 cm in length weighing about 25 to 30 grams. Avoid treating the ginger planting material with any chemicals before sowing in the main field.
While planting ginger roots, the planting material may be mixed with well-rotten farmyard manure (FMY) like cow dung or any other garden compost. Supplement each pit with 35 to 40 grams of neem cake (Powdered Azadirachta indica) before planting. Plant these in shallow pits and cover them with a thin layer of topsoil.
Plant and Row Spacing in Growing Ginger Root
Generally, the ginger root planting should be done in row system with a row spacing of 25 to 30 cm. In case of the ridge method (usually followed under irrigated conditions) a spacing of 40 to 45 cm should be followed.
Growing Ginger in Containers
You can grow ginger in containers/pots as well. Make sure these containers are exposed to sunlight (Avoid bright light) as well as shade. The container potting mix and size of the container is considerable factors while growing ginger roots in containers. For good aeration, have some holes underneath of the containers/pots. You can buy container gardening kits in many nurseries or stores. As space is restricted in the container, you must ensure the soil is always loosened for better root growth and never allow the container soil to become dry.
Watering in Growing Ginger Root
- The first watering should be carried out immediately after planting.
- Subsequent watering should be done at an interval of 6 to 7 days. It all depends on soil moisture and climatic conditions.
- As the ginger crop is sensitive to waterlogging, the cultivation beds should be drained as soon as possible in case of heavy rains or floods.
- It takes about 20 to 25 irrigations throughout its growth period, maybe less in rain-fed growing.
- Adapting drip irrigation is one of the best solutions in water scarcity areas. This can also help in better root growth, controlling the weeds and utilizing any liquid fertilizers effectively.
Manure and Fertilizers for Growing Ginger Root
Ginger crop responds very well to manures and fertilizers. It is recommended to supplement 25 tonnes of well-decomposed farmyard manure (FMY) during land preparation (at the time of the last ploughing). Apart from this, the essential nutrient fertilizers like N, P, K should be provided at different stages of crop growth.
- At the time of plantation N:P:K = 75: 75: 75 kg/ha.
- 8 weeks after planting the roots N:P:K = 65 kg/ha: Nil: Nil.
- 4 months after planting N:P:K = 50 kg/ha: : Nil : Nil.
Kinds Of Intercrops are Recommended in Growing Ginger Root
Intercropping provides the best way to utilize the interspaces and earn extra money during the initial crop growth. It is better to grow shade providing crops. The suitable intercrops in Growing Ginger Root are
- Pigeon Pea.
- Cluster Beans.
Crop Rotation in Growing Ginger Root
Well, for best yield and to prevent pests and diseases of a ginger crop, crop rotation should be followed. Avoid cultivating ginger in the same field continuously. The best crop rotation crops for Growing Ginger Root are:
- Rice/Paddy crop.
- Gingelly crop.
- Maize/Corn crop
- Any Vegetables / Gram / Legume crops.
Weed control in Growing Ginger Root
You can have mulch material to control weeds and hand weeding can be carried out.
Pests in Growing Ginger Root
Shoot Borer (This is the main infestation in the ginger crop), Rhizome Flies, Leaf Roller, Chinese Rose Beetle, and Scales are common pests found in Growing Ginger Root. In case of organic Growing Ginger Root, use only certified organic fertilizers along with any natural pest controls. For symptoms and control measures of these pests should be found from horticulture department or spice board of agriculture.
Diseases in Growing Ginger Root
- Soft Rot or Rhizome rot (This is a major disease of a ginger crop).
- Root Knot Nematode.
- Leaf Spot.
- Bacterial Wilt.
For symptoms and control measures of the above said diseases in ginger should be found from horticulture department or spice board of agriculture.
Harvesting in Growing Ginger Root
Ginger will become ready for harvesting (for the vegetable purpose) in 5 to 6 months after root planting. However, you can expect fully matured ginger crop in 8 to 9 months after planting. The harvesting may differ from variety to variety and market demand. You must loosen the soil before lifting ginger roots. You can use a spader for harvesting purpose. Post-harvesting method of ginger should be followed for washing, cleaning, cutting and grading before sending them to market.
Yield in Growing Ginger Root
The factors that influence the Ginger crop yield are:
- Pests and Diseases.
- Other Horticulture practices.
On an average one can obtain a yield of green ginger is 8 to 10 tonnes/acre. However, you can obtain 18 to 25 % of dry ginger out of this.
Indoor Ginger Growing Tips
- You can start with a living ginger root which is available in garden centers or local nurseries.
- Before planting the ginger indoor, it is recommended to soak the ginger root in warm water for 12 hours (preferably overnight).
- Buy a shallow and wide pot or container and fill it with rich and well-drained potting soil mix.
- You can plant the ginger root with the eye bud pointing upwards. After placing this, cover the root with topsoil with up to 2 inches. Light watering should be followed immediately.
- Place the planted pot or containers in warm and humid place. Avoid direct bright sunlight as ginger prefer to grow in shade.
- You should make sure the potting soil is always moist for better root growth. Avoid overwatering as it may result in root rot.
- Ginger is a slow growing plant hence it takes 15 to 25 days to see some new shoots.
- After a couple of months, you can start harvesting as per your requirement by moving the soil to the edge of the container or pot.
- Never allow a ginger plant to dry off completely.