Growing Guava Fruit:
The following content is all about Growing Guava Fruits on a commercial scale.
Introduction To Growing Guava
Guava is one of the most common tropical fruits grown in India. Guava fruit is native to Mexico and Central America. Guava is fourth most important fruit crops after banana, mango, and citrus. Guava trees are hardy in nature and prolific bearer. Guava plantation requires less care compared to other fruit crops. Commercial cultivation of guava fruit is a lucrative and highly profitable business. This crop requires onetime initial investment to set up, thereafter you can obtain decent profits with minimum care. The latest and modern farming method of Guava fruit is “High-Density plantation” (HDP). This method involves having high plant density (closer spacing), quality guava planting material, canopy management, support and other management. High-density guava farming method is adopted by many farmers in the country since there are huge profits as HDP can maximize yield per unit area and makes fruits available in the market early. Getting fruits early in the market can fetch high profits. Guava fruits can be grown in all parts of India. Uttar Pradesh (Allahabad) produces best guavas in the country. Guavas can be grown as a hobby even in containers, pots, and backyards. Guavas can be grown using organic materials without using any synthetic and chemical and pesticides. Organic guava fruits have excellent market demand in local and export markets.
Guava Tree Description
Guava trees are tall, hardy can reach a height of 6 to 8 feet. The leaves of guava tree are a green color. This tree is profusely branched and bears white fragrant flowers. This tree produces round/ovate fruits with many seeds in it. However, there some varieties without seeds as well.
Pollination System in Growing Guava
Scientific / Botanical Name of Guava
Guava Fruit in Indian Languages
- Guava: English.
- Hindi: Amrud / Paere.
- Koyyapazham: Tamil.
- Perakka: Malayalam.
- Jaamapandu: Telugu.
- Paer / Peron: Konkani.
- Peroo: Marathi.
- Pijuli: Oriya.
- Amrud: Punjabi.
- Perangai: Tulu.
- Payara: Bengali.
- Jamrukh / Jam Phal: Gujarati.
- Seebe / Pyarilhannu: Kananda.
Guava Varieties / Guava Cultivars
- Allahabad Safeda.
- Arka Mridula.
- Arka Amulya.
- Arka Rashmi.
- Apple color.
- Baruipur Local.
- TRY (G)-1.
- Seedless Chittidar.
- Nagpur seedless.
- Dholka, Kothrud.
- Red Fleshed.
- Allahabad Surkha.
The Lucknow-49 is considered to be the most popular commercial variety. Allahabad Safeda is also very famous variety grown in many states of India. Thailand red guava is another exotic variety is being cultivated in India.
Top Commercial Guava Production States in India
- Uttar Pradesh.
- West Bengal.
- Andhra Pradesh.
- Tamil Nadu.
Top Guava Production Countries
Guava Health Benefits
- The Guava fruits are a good source of vitamin C, pectin, calcium, and phosphorus.
- Guava fruits can boost immune power.
- They may lower the risk of cancer.
- These fruits are good for diabetics.
- Regular consumption keeps your heart healthy.
- Guavas can treat constipation problems.
- They are excellent for eyesight improvement.
- Good to consume during pregnancy.
- Guava fruit can beat a toothache.
- They work as good stress-busters.
- Guavas are good for brain health.
- Excellent for Weight Loss.
- Can prevent a cough and cold.
- These fruits have anti-aging properties.
- Regular eating of guava fruit may improve skin complexion and overall skin health.
Climate for Growing Guava
Guava fruits can be grown in both tropical and sub-tropical climatic regions of the world. Guavas grown in areas with distinct winters will have better quality. Because of this fact, Allahabad in Utter Pradesh is famous for the best quality Guava fruits. Commercial guava crop requires about 900 mm to 1,000 mm annual rainfall. Although this crop is drought resistant, irrigation should be carried out based on soil moisture to get fruits with good weight.
Soil Requirement for Growing Guava
The guava trees can be grown in many varieties of soils due to its hardy nature. It can be grown from alluvial to lateral soils. Heavy soils with good drainage are also suitable. However, deep friable well-drained soils with a pH value of 5.5 to 8.0 are ideal for commercial guava production. Saline or Alkaline soils should be avoided as they are not suitable for guava cultivation. Guava trees are sensitive to water-logging and care should be taken during the rainy season. Before planting, it is advised to go for soil test just to make sure the soil suitability and fertility. Based on soil test results, any soil nutrient deficiencies can be supplemented during land preparation.
Propagation in Growing Guava
Well, guava crop is propagated by seeds (seedlings) and vegetative methods. Trees propagated through seeds produce different sizes of fruit sizes and quality although such trees are generally long-lived. Vegetative propagation includes grafting, air-layering, and budding. The best method practiced in commercial production of guavas is air-layering.
Planting Season for Growing Guava
Generally planting season in India is from June to December. However, rainy season is ideal for planting.
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Land Preparation, Planting and Spacing in Growing Guava
Give 3 to 4 deep ploughings followed by a couple of cross harrowings. Remove any dead trees, clods, rocks, weeds from the field. Level the field before digging the pits. Generally, a square system of planting is adopted by digging the pits size of 1 meter x 1 meter x 1 meter ( in rich soils, some farmers adopt 0.6 meter x 0.6meter x 0.6 meter pit sizes). These pits should be ready before the rainy season. Leave the pits for 2 to 3 weeks and fill each pit with 20 kg of farmyard manure and 1/2 kg of superphosphate. You can start planting once rains started.
Usual spacing for guava is about 18 feet x 18 feet ( 6 meter x 6 meter) which can accommodate about 110 to 115 plants per acre land. The plant to plant distance is about 12 feet to 15 feet. In case of high-density planting, spacing would be less to cover more plants, in this case, you can accommodate with 400 to 500 plants with high-density planting method. The exact guava planting distance depends on variety, soil fertility, and irrigation availability.
Irrigation in Growing Guava
Usually, guava is cultivated the rain-fed crop. However, in dry and hot climates, water stress should be avoided. In winter, give an irrigation once 3 weeks and in summer once in 2 weeks by the ring method. Adapt a drip irrigation if the crop is grown in large scale. You can avail drip system subsides from local government horticulture schemes.
Training and Pruning in Growing Guava
The purpose of training is to establish a strong tree framework and avoid weak crotches for better growth and yield. This also scaffolds of branches suitable for bearing heavy fruits without damaging tree and branches. As part of training in guava plantation, shoots close to the ground should be cut off up to at least 30 to 35 cm from the ground level. Allow at least 4 scaffold limbs to grow by leaving the center open. Carry out a light pruning activity annually especially in the month of May or after the harvest.
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Manures and Fertilizers in Growing Guava
A fully fruit-bearing tree should be given a fertilizer of nitrogen with 300 to 400 grams, Phosphorus(P) of 250 grams to 350 grams and potash(K) of 250 to 350 grams along with 30 to 35 kg of well-decomposed farmyard manure such as cow dung.
The following table shows the recommended manures and fertilizers in guava crop.
|Age of trees(years)||Farmyard manure FYM (kg)/tree||Nitrogen ‘N’ grams/tree||Phosphorus ‘P’ grams/tree||Potash ‘K’ grams/tree|
|1||6 to 8||100||50||50|
|3||20 to 25||300||150||150|
|4||25 to 30||400||200||200|
|5||40 to 50||500||250 to 300||250 to 370|
During initial growth of plants (young plants). The fertilizers should be applied in a circular trench along the periphery of the root system. In case of older trees, fertilizers should be broadcasted over a radius of 100 to 120 cm from the tree base and forked in lightly without disturbing the roots.
During first 4 years, farmyard manure should be in the month of June before the onset of monsoon. Inorganic (NPK) fertilizers should be given in 3 split doses distributed equally in the months of July, September, and February. After irrigation is off (During the bahar treatment) one should apple 1/2 dose of ‘N’, a full dose of ‘P’, a full dose of ‘K’ should be applied along with FYM. The remaining 1/2 dose of ‘N’ should be given 30 to 40 days after bearing of the fruits.
Intercultural Operations in Growing Guava
- Weed Control and Spading:
The guava garden should be kept always free from weeds especially during monsoon (rainy season), weeding should be carried periodically and manual weeding is preferred. Carry out light harrowing to check the weed growth. Mulching can also be done at plant basins to prevent the weeds. The weedicide such as “gramoxone” is effective in controlling the weeds. The rows between trees can be ploughed 2 or 3 times yearly to manage the soil in your garden.
- Mulching in Growing Guava
There are many advantages of mulching in orchard management. Mulching can conserve the soil moisture, control the weed growth, maintain soil temperature, and prevents from soil erosion. Mulching materials such as dry leaves, or straw can be sued at plant base. After some time, this material will decompose and works as excellent organic matter. Mulch the Guava orchard at least twice a year. Nowadays, there are black polyethylene sheets available in the market for mulch purpose. However, it is recommended to muck the plant base with natural material.
Intercropping in Growing Guava
Farmers can use interspaces during the initial growth of the plants for cultivating different crops. This provides extra income which can be used for managing the guava farm. You can grow short duration crops like vegetables and fruit crops like pineapple, papaya, beans, green chillies, green grams, black grams, spinach, onions, cucumber, cabbage, cauliflower, peas, and cowpea.
Guava Tree Care
It is important to care guava plant, especially during the initial growth stage. Timely application of manures and fertilizers results in quality fruits and high yields. The following are common pests and diseases in guava crop.
- Pests in Growing Guava: Aphids / Scale insects, Mealybug, Fruit fly are common pests found in guava farming. Carrying out appropriate soil treatment along with chemical measure will prevent these pests.
- Diseases in Growing Guava: The most common diseases found in guava orchard are wilt, anthracnose, cercospora leaf spot, canker, and seedling blight. Applying an appropriate fungicides along with other treatments can control these diseases.
Harvesting in Growing Guava
The vegetatively propagated (Grafted, budded or layered) guava trees start bearing fruits in 2 to 3 years after planting. In case of seedling, they bear fruits in 4 to 5 years. The guava fruits should be picked as soon as they mature otherwise they start ripening on the tree. How do we know the fruits are ready for picking? Well, the fruits start changing the skin color from deep green to yellow. Hand picking is preferred at frequent intervals to avoid physical injuries.
Yield in Growing Guava
Guava fruit yield depends on variety, tree age, season of cropping, planting method ( like high density or regular), and orchard management practices. One can obtain an average yield of 9 to 10 tonnes per hectare. However, with hybrid and high-density planting, it can be as high as 30 to 35 tonnes per hectare. You can expect 1200 to 1500 fruits per year with 9 to 10 years old guava tree. Grafted plants produce more yield as high as 300 to 350 kg whereas seedling plants can produce 80 to 90 kg per tree. In case of the high-density plantation (HDP), a yield of more than 80 kg per tree can be expected.
Post-Harvesting in Growing Guava
Guava shelf life is about 2 to 3 years and they are highly perishable in nature hence care should be taken while sending them to local or out of state markets. Guava fruits are graded on size and color and should be packed in bamboo baskets or corrugated fibre boards. Use dried grass as padding martial in the packed boxes. Guava fruits can be stored 3 to 4 weeks in cold storage my maintaining 8°C to 9°C with a relative humidly of 80 to 85%.
Marketing of Guava Fruits
There are two ways you can take care of marketing of guavas in your orchard. Leasing the orchard at a fixed rate or selling fruits on your own. Graded and packed fruits can be transported local fruit markets or sell to fruit processing units.
Cost of Growing Guava
The cost of Guava cultivation is comprised of the following.
- Land Development.
- Irrigation Infrastructure.
- Drip Irrigation & Fertigation System.
- Building and Storage.
- Cost of cultivation.
Some of the above components come under fixed onetime investment. The other variable component costs depend on region, a variety of trees, labor cost etc..
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Profits in Growing Guava Fruit
Profits in guava vary from region to region and season to season and variety to variety.
In case of a high-density plantation, after all expenses, you can get a profit of 1.5 to 2 lakh rupees per year per acre.