Introduction to Growing Knolkol
The following information is about “Growing Knolkol Vegetable“.
The knolkol is one of the versatile vegetables; it is also a part of the cabbage family. The scientific name of knolkol is Brassica caulorapa. The knolkol belongs to the Brassicaceae family. It is grown from an edible enlarged stem. The knolkol plant is a biennial plant. The plant is grown in winter seasons. It is considered to have originated from the Mediterranean region. In cabbage family, it was the first invented vegetable around the 18th century in Europe. It is most popular in Asia, Russia, Italy, Germany and Northern France.
The plant is grown as an annual crop. The demand for this vegetable is very high. Eventually, the cultivation of this vegetable has increased due to its growing demand. It can be consumed raw or cooked. The stem of this crop is also used for culinary purposes. Each and every part of the crop is edible in nature. It is very easy to cultivate them in the kitchen garden as well.
Characteristics of Knolkol Vegetable:
- Naturally, it belongs to the cabbage, broccoli, cauliflowers, kale, collard greens and Brussels sprouts group of vegetables.
- The taste and texture of knolkol is similar to the broccoli stem, but it is sweeter and milder, with better and greater flesh content.
- The stem when young is crispy and juicy, but it is less sweet.
- The leaves may be green, purple or white.
- The leaves have waxy cuticles.
- The flower of the plant is yellow; the flowers contain four petals and are small in size.
- The fruits which are elongated are called as siliques.
- The diameter of the fruit is 2- 2.5 inches.
- The fruit is globular in shape with a slightly flattened stem.
Properties of Knolkol Vegetable:
- The properties are taken as per 100 grams content of knolkol.
- Knolkol has carbohydrates of 6.2 g.
- Fat present in knolkol is 0.1 g.
- The protein content in it is 0.1 g.
- The vitamins present in knolkol are Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E and Vitamin K.
- The minerals present in knolkol are Sodium, Magnesium, Iron and Calcium, Manganese, Potassium, Phosphorous and Selenium.
Cultivars/varieties of Growing Knolkol:
- Among all varieties, it is an early harvesting variety.
- The shape of this variety is globular.
- Light green in colour, smooth, tender textured with medium sized knobs.
- The flesh is creamy-white and tendered.
- The stems, leaves and a dwarf are green in color.
- The average yield of this variety is 15-20 tonnes per hectare in a year.
Early Purple Vienna:
- These are harvested a bit later than the white Vienna variety.
- The knobs have white flesh, look tender and are delicate.
- The leaves are purple in colour.
- It matures 55-66 days after the plantation.
- The average yield of this variety is 15-20 tonnes per hectare in a year.
- The knobs of this variety are green, round, large in size.
- The knobs are delicate, tender and have white flesh in it.
- The yield can be harvested in 76 days.
- The average yield of this variety is 22.5-25 tonnes per hectare in a year.
- The recommended cultivation can be done in mid and high hilly areas of the western Himalayas.
King of North:
- The plant height of this variety is 20-30 cm of the foliage. The plant is dark green in colour and appears flat.
- The plant matures in 60-65 days after transplantation.
Soil and climate requirements for Growing Knolkol:
For cultivating knolkol successfully, the soil which is selected for the cultivation should be properly and well fertilized. Consider a less acid soil for Growing Knolkol. The sandy loamy soil is more suitable and well drained. For growing the knolkol and for obtaining higher yield, slit loam soil or clay soil is also suitable. The pH value that should be maintained is 5.5 – 7.0. For proper and high yield, manures and fertilizers should be given timely.
The knolkol crops are well grown in winter season. The knolkol are capable of surviving in the strong storm and extreme cold climate. The germination of the seeds happens at 15˚C – 32˚C. For Growing Knolkol the average temperature required should range between 15˚C-29˚C. All the other vegetables are not capable to survive low temperatures, but knolkol does.
Land preparation and planting for Growing Knolkol:
Before planting, the land should be prepared by ploughing it at least 3-4 times. The soil of the land should be prepared fine and for preparing the soil disk harrow can be used. For the irrigation of the knolkol the preparation of beds and channels should be good so that the irrigation reaches till the roots of the plants. The layout of the land can be in the form of ridges or furrows. On a cloudy day or in the evening, the plantation of plants should be done for good and better results.
The establishment of the plants should be good; they are established by pressing the soil around the plant. The plants which are dead should also be removed from the surroundings of the knolkol crop. Depending of soil fertility and climatic conditions the plant spacing should be done. Each and every plant should be spaced 25 x 25 cm, 25 x 30 cm or 25 x 40 cm apart. If there is a late yield the spacing should be more and wider. To get the best yield decomposed organic matter should be supplied to the plant.
Propagation method for Growing Knolkol:
The propagation of the knolkol is done by the seeds. For the propagation of the knolkol tip cutting and leaf cutting process can also be used. Eventually for good yield the seeds should be sown in the land as it gives good results. The sowing is done by the end of the August till the end of the November. In 1 hectare of land, 1.5 kg of seeds can be sown. The transplantation is done 4-5 weeks after the sowing of the seeds.
Manure and fertilization method in Growing Knolkol:
The land should be supplied with farmyard manure of 20-25 tonnes per hectare. The mixture of NPK should also be applied to the land. The ratio of N: P: K is 100:85:170 kg per hectare of land. The second dose of the nitrogen should be applied after the transplantation.
Irrigation methods in Growing Knolkol:
In case of growing the knolkol irrigation process plays an important role. For maintaining good growth, continuous moisture should be present at the plant base. After transplantation of the seedlings, light irrigation should be given to the plants immediately. The irrigation should be continued for 4-5 days for better and better results. At an interval of 7-8 days, subsequent irrigation should be given to the knolkol plants.
Intercultural methods in Growing Knolkol:
Hoeing: Hoeing should be done after every irrigation cycle; Earthing up helps the irrigated water to reach the roots. This process should be done 25-30 days after the transplantation.
Shallow Culture: This practice is used to kill the weeds and help the soil retain moisture. In this process deep cultivation should be avoided as it may harm the crop.
The weeds should be controlled because they can pass the diseases to the crops. They are controlled by spraying herbicides on them. The herbicide should be selected as per the weed.
Pest and disease control measures in Growing Knolkol:
The pests infesting the plant are cutworm, cabbage butterfly, white grubs, stem borer and tobacco caterpillar.
Control for the pest:
- The intensity of the cutworms can be controlled by using chloropyriphos @ 20 kg per hectare. They should be treated before sowing the plants in the main field.
- For the adult caterpillars Trichogramma chilonis @ 50,000 adults per hectare should be released.
- White grubs should be controlled by Chloropyriphos @ 20 kg per hectare.
- The stem borer can be controlled by cypermeththrin @ 1 ml per litre of water.
- By spraying cypermeththrin @ 1 ml per litre of water the tobacco caterpillar can be controlled.
The diseases affecting the plant of knolkol are Black rot, Damping off and Downy mildew
Control of the diseases:
- The black rots can be controlled by soaking the seeds in plain water for 30 minutes, then the seeds should be treated in hot water 50˚C , the seeds should be mixed with Streptocyclinein 100 ppm (1g per 10 litres) for 30 minutes, the seeds should be dried in the shade before sowing them.
- For controlling damping off the nursery beds should be treated with Formalin in 7 parts of water for 3-4 days before sowing the seeds inside the bed.
- Downy mildew can be controlled by spraying the crop with Mancozeb 0.25% + Metalaxyl for 10- 15 days interval from starting of the cultivation, so that the disease may not become more problematic in the crop area.
Harvesting techniques in Growing Knolkol:
The smaller size knobs have good and great demand in the market. The stems which are below the knobs should be cut so as to get knolkol knobs early. For cutting the stems sharp knife can be used as a tool. When we cut the knobs they should be 5-8 cm in size. While sending to the storage or while sending them to the market, we should tie them with some bunch of leaves.
Post harvesting techniques in Growing Knolkol:
There are 4 techniques in the post harvesting:
Cleaning: In this process, the knolkol should be cleaned properly of all the dirt which is attached to.
Storage: The knolkol‘s can be stored for 2-3 weeks at a temperature of 0˚C and at a humidity of 90%. The taste of the knolkol is like a turnip, but the texture is that of water chestnuts.
Transportation: The knolkol should be transported in a cold container by packing them in ventilating boxes where air flow is good as the leaves remains turgid.
Marketing: These can be marketed in local markets as well as in international markets through exports. In the local areas where the demand is more they would be generating good revenue and are more profitable.
Yield in Growing Knolkol:
The yield of knolkol depends on the area of land which is selected and it is also dependent on the fertilization, irrigation and weeding management techniques used for the crops. For best yield the atmosphere of the farm location is also important. The average yield of the knolkol is 25 – 30 tonnes per hectare in a year.
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