Introduction to Growing Marigold from Dried Flowers, and Seeds:
Let us discuss about “Growing Marigold From Dried Flowers, and Seeds“.
The Marigold is one of the popular flowers which are extensively grown all over the world. In India, these flowers are grown commonly these are extensively used for the religious and also the flowers are used in social functions. There are about 33 species of the Marigold and numerous varieties of Marigold. This is an annual or perennial plant. The marigold is originated from the genus of Tagetes. The marigold belongs to Asteraceae. Marigold is scientifically named as Tagetes erecta. These flowers are native to South America and North America.
Read: Carambola Cultivation.
Characteristics of Marigold:
- The plant can be grown up to 0.1 – 2.2 m in height.
- The leaves are pinnate green in colour.
- The flowers are often white, orange, maroon, golden, and yellow. The floral heads are typically 4 – 6 cm in diameter.
Varieties of Marigold:
- Pusa Arpita
- Pusa Basanti Gainda
- Pusa Narangi Gainda
- Jaine Deep Orange Marigold
- Tagetes patula Disco Orange
- Calendula officinalis
- Tagetes erect doubloon
- Catha Palustris
- Tagetes cottage Red
- Tagetes lucida
- Tagetes tenufolia
- Tagetes erecta
Read: Rose Flower Growing Tips.
Soil and Climate requirements for Growing Marigold:
The marigold plants are grown in all ranges of soils. These can adapt to all types of the soils. The soil should be rich and well drained. The soil, which are used for Growing Marigold should be of light soils. The pH level should range about 5.6 – 6.5.
For luxuriant growth and flowering, mild climate is more preferred. The optimum temperature, which is required, should be 18˚C– 20˚C. The plants are resistant upto 35˚C but this leads to reduction of flower size and number. By frost, in winter seasons the plants and flowers can be damaged.
Land preparation and Planting for Growing Marigold:
All the unwanted weeds, pebbles, stones, and also the unwanted materials of the previous should be removed. Then the land should be ploughed for 2 – 3 times as it will attain the fine tilth and smooth texture following by the ploughing, the harrowing and levelling should be done. For a hectare of land, we need to apply 24 tonnes of farmyard manure to the plant.
The seedling should be transplanted to the main field. The spacing should be 30 cm * 30 cm for the marigold plants. The plants need proper care, so that they will develop well.
Propagation method for Growing Marigold:
The Marigold flower plants can be raised from the seeds or by cuttings. The seeds are best way of getting good yield. The seeds should be treated in captan @ 2kg of seeds so that this will prevent from damping off. The seeds should be sown in seed boxes, sowed in pots or these can be raised in nursery beds. The germination of seed will take 5 – 7 days. The nursery beds should be prepared, by digging pits and then they should be filled with farmyard manure, each seed should be sown 2 cm depth and 6 – 8 cm from each row. For an acre of land we need 200 – 300 seeds if we raise them in summer and if we raise them in winter we need 150 – 200 g per acre.
Manure and Fertilization method in Growing Marigold:
For a hectare of land, we need to apply 24 tonnes of Farmyard manure before ploughing the land. In addition to all this we need to apply N: P: K fertilizer @ 100:75:75. Half amount of the Nitrogen and full amount of potassium and phosphorus should be applied as a basal dose. The remaining should be applied after one week of plantations. The other remaining should be applied after 30 – 40 days of transplantation.
Irrigation methods in Growing Marigold:
Depending upon the region and also the season the irrigation should be given as per the requirement. The irrigation should be given as per the moisture in the soil. For marigold plants, watering once in a week is sufficient. For every 10 – 12 days, the irrigation should be given during the winter season. For every 4 – 5 days, the irrigation should be given during the summer season. The field should not be logged with water during the monsoon season as this can cause the harm to the crop and finally, result in root rot disease.
Intercultural methods in Growing Marigold:
Weeding: The weeding should be done regularly, as this will help the crop to protect from the weeds and disease occurrence. The weeding can be done manually or by using the herbicides or weedicides. For this crop we need to weed for at least 4 -5 times.
Mulching: This mulching will help in conserving moisture; the mulching should be done by using the weeds, unwanted stems, leaves and twigs.
Pinching: If there is any growth of the busy then we need to start the pinching in the field to the plants. This will help in development of lateral branches. After 40 days transplantation of the plant should be done. The late pinching like at 50 – 60 days will not be effective in growth of branches. This will also help with production of more flowers.
Earthling Up: Earthling up should be done after 3 weeks of the plantation, then after the next earthling up should be done after 1 month of transplantation of the seedlings.
Pest and Diseases control measures in Growing Marigold:
The pests and diseases that attack the Marigold crop are:
- Hairy caterpillar: The pests can be controlled by spraying Nuvan or Thiodan @ 1ml per litre of water.
- Red spider mite: The Red mites can be controlled by spraying Kethone @ 1ml per litre of water or Nuvacron 40E c or Rogor or Metasystox 25 E C.
- Flower bud rots: These diseases can be controlled by spraying Dithane M – 45 @ 0.2.
- Powdery mildew: The intensity can be controlled by spraying Karathane 40 E c @ 0.5 or by sulphur can be used.
- Damping off: Before sowing, these seeds should be treated in carbendazim @ 2.5 g or in captan @ 3 g.
- Collar rot: We should prevent soil sterilization; this can be handled by suing the healthy seedlings.
Harvesting techniques in Growing Marigold:
The flowers which are plucked should attain full size. The plucking should be done in the early hours of the day or we can harvest them in the cool hours of a day. Before plucking, the flowers we need to irrigate the field as this will keep the flowers fresh after the harvest also. The flowers which are plucked should be collected in polythylene bags or in bamboo baskets for carrying them to the markets.
Post harvesting techniques in Growing Marigold:
- After they are harvested they should be watered at a lighter proportion to keep them fresh.
- Then we need to segregate the flowers which are full with petals and also the flowers that are losing the petals.
- These should be stored in cold places.
- The sorting of the flowers should be done as per the size and variety.
- They should be graded as per the quality and colour.
- These should be packed in cloth bags or in poly bags.
- Then they should be packed in bamboo baskets.
- While transporting them, they should be transported
- The flowers have high demand in the market.
Yield of Marigold Flowers:
The yield of marigold completely depends upon the cultivation practices. The average yield of the Marigold in a hectare of land will be about 15 – 29 tonnes in a year. The flowers which can be obtained from a plant are about 100 – 150 flowers nearly. The yield differs as per the variety.