Introduction to Growing Pears in India:
The following information is about Growing Pears in India.
The pear tree is a perennial deciduous tree bearing fruits. The Pear is a European fruit. Pear belongs to the Rosaceae family. The scientific name of Pear is Pyrus communis. This tree genus has originated from Pyrus. Pear originated from the European countries. These were being cultivated since ancient times. The fruit was carried to Mexico and California by early Spanish missionaries. Pears are sometimes used in the preparation of alcoholic beverages.
Across the world there are 3,000 Pear species. Each of them varies in size, shape, colour, crispness and sweetness. China, the United States, Italy, Argentina and Turkey are the top producers of Pear all over the world. If the Pear grows well, the fruit gives profit to the farmer. This fruit has huge demand in international markets.
Characteristics of Pears:
Plant of Pear: The plant is medium in size; it grows up to 30 ft height, while cultivating it reaches up to 8- 18 ft. The size of the plant or tree is completely dependent on training system, rootstock and also the development of root.
Leaves of Pear: Leaves are elliptical in shape with acute tips and fine serrate margins entire leaf, length of the leaf is 2- 4″ inches.
Flower of Pear: Flower is 1″ inch in diameter, with white petals; these flowers are similar to the apple flower as they have longer pedicels. Inflorescence is corymbose, as they contain 5 – 7 flowers.
Fruit of Pear: If the fruit is from Europe then it is in pyriform shape and if at all it is from Asia then the fruit is round in shape. It contains flesh which is edible. There are cavities for the seed; the fruit contains 5 seed cavities. All the varieties differ in shape, texture and also in colour because each Pear variety has its own quality (gene).
Properties of Pears:
Nutrients that are present in Pear are:
- Energy: 57 kcal
- Carbohydrates: 15.23 g
- Protein: 0.36 g
- Fat: 0.14 g
- Vitamins: Vitamin B6, Folate B6, Chlorine, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Vitamin K.
- Minerals: Zinc, Calcium, Iron, Sodium, Magnesium, Potassium, Phosphorous, and Manganese.
Cultivars/Varieties of Pears:
These are the Pears which are popular found all over the world.
- This variety of Pears is popular for its crispy texture.
- The pulp of this variety is similar to apple pulp.
- Look of this Pear is also same like an apple.
- The skin of this fruit is rough and has thick skin.
- Also, it has tan skin.
- These can be eaten raw and also these can be used in salads.
- Asian Pears can be popularly seen in the markets in the month of August – December.
- This variety is known popularly for their crispy texture.
- They are good for cooking.
- A shape which is attained by the fruit is good.
- The texture of the flesh is soft and grainy.
- The skin of this variety is brown in colour.
- When they ripe, fruits smell sweet.
- They can be eaten fresh and raw.
- These can be used in preparation of desserts.
- This variety is small in size.
- Forelle Pear can be eaten as a snack.
- This variety is popularly found in the month of September and October.
- This variety is beautifully shaped.
- The neck of this fruit is long.
- The texture of the fruit is smooth and juicy.
- They are good for cooking and can be consumed fresh.
- When they are fresh they are good to taste.
- This fruit tastes like vanilla flavor.
- The skin of the fruit is red in colour.
- These are found popularly in autumn seasons.
- Anjou Pears are very juicy and very sweet in taste.
- The texture of the fruit is very firm and smooth
- They are red & green in colour.
- These can be consumed fresh or by cooking.
- While selecting them, they should be heavy.
- These varieties are found in market in the month of October – May.
Red Anjou Pears:
- This variety of Pear is similar to Anjou Pear.
- Look of this variety is very striking.
- They are red in colour.
- These can be consumed raw.
Soil and Climate requirements for Growing Pears in India:
For growing Pears, slightly alkaline soils are preferred. The pH level of the soil should be 8.7. The soil, which is less acidic and less basic is not suitable for growing Pear. The soil should be well drained and must be well aerated. But the soil, which is more fertile can be used in growing Pears. For growing the Pear, sandy- loamy- clay soil should be used. Soil should be 2 m deep such that they drain well and also the soil should be capable of holding moisture.
These Pears can be grown in colder climates, but if the climate is warm and sunny then the plants grow really well. The temperature needed for the plants is 15˚C – 25˚C. The rainfall of 50 – 75 mm is needed in a year. The temperature should be high during sowing and harvesting. Plants can also be grown at elevations of 1700 -2400 m above the sea level. Subtropical and tropical temperatures are good for growing Pears. The crop should never be exposed to extreme climates.
Land preparation and Planting for Growing Pears in India:
First the land should be selected. While preparing land, all the weeds in the land should be removed. Other materials like pebbles, stones, and left over roots of old crop should be removed or destroyed. Before planting, the land should be ploughed several times so that the soil attains fine and smooth texture. The land should be levelled and manure should be mixed with soil. Drainage channels should be prepared properly in the main field.
Pear should be grown in the rectangular and square system. The dimension of the pits 1 x 1 x 1 cm should be dug. Before one month, pits should be dug and the pits should be filled with manured soil. Irrigation should be supplied after planting. The transplantation of seeds can be done directly in main field or seedlings can be transplanted from the nursery. Plantation should be completed in January. The average spacing between the plants is 8 m x 4 m.
Read: Loquat Cultivation.
Propagation method of Growing Pears in india:
Pears can be propagated through grafting and seeding. Seeds should be placed in a wooden box containing moist soil so that they will germinate easily. They will get germinated within 10 – 12 days, and then the seedlings should be transplanted into the main field at a distance of 10 cm. In December – January, seedlings can be grafted. Seeds which are very healthy should be sown or should be used in propagation.
Manure and Fertilization method in Growing Pears in India:
At the time of land preparation, farmyard manure should be applied. For Pear crop proper quantity of farmyard manure is required. The mixture of Nitrogen: Phosphorous: Potassium (N: P: K) should be applied to the land in appropriate quantity. Year by year the dosage of the manure and fertilizers should be increased until 10 years. Before fertilization, a soil test must be done.
Irrigation methods for Growing Pears in India:
Once in 5 – 7 days, irrigation should be given. Irrigation should be reduced in winter season. During winter seasons, once in 15 days the irrigation should be supplied. Proper irrigation should be supplied when there is irregular rain. Drainage should be maintained properly so that the excess water from the rainfall doesn’t get logged. During the month of January, irrigation should be stopped. Proper irrigation should be supplied during the flowering and bearing periods. During summer season flood irrigation is more recommended. At the time of planting, first irrigation should be supplied. Drip Irrigation System is preferred as it has its own advanatges.
Intercultural methods for Growing Pears in India:
- Whenever we find unnecessary weeds they should be removed as they can harm the crop by spreading diseases and attracting unwanted pests. They can be controlled by using the herbicides.
- Pruning should be done regularly to facilitate air flow between the plants. By pruning, occurrence of disease is also reduced.
- Mulching helps in controlling the weeds and also maintains moisture in the soil.
- Plants can be trained and encouraged to trellis over the wall or fence.
- Pear plants cultivation can have intercropping practice with crops like gram, wheat, moong, pea, mash, and toria etc.
Pest and diseases control measures of Growing Pears in india:
The pest and diseases that affect the Pear crop are Spider mite, Pear scab, and Root rot, Aphids, Thrips and Hopper. These are the control measures required to prevent the pest and diseases.
- Spider mite: Sulphur or dicofol solution can be sprayed for controlling the spider mite.
- Pear scab: For decreasing the intensity of Pear scab captan solution should be sprayed.
- Root rot: By spaying carbendazim solution this can be controlled.
- Aphids and Thrips: Thiamethoxam or Imidacloprid should be sprayed for controlling them.
- Hopper: Carbaryl or Dimethoate solution should be sprayed for decreasing the intensity of Hopper.
Harvesting techniques in Growing Pears in India:
After 135 – 145 days the Pears usually mature and ripe. Depending on the variety of the fruit, duration of ripening varies. Harvesting of Pear should be never delayed. Pears should be harvested manually by hand picking. The fruits which are firm and green should be packed and sent to distant markets. For local markets, the fruits which are fully ripened should be picked.
Post harvesting techniques in Growing Pears:
- Once they are harvested, they should be cleaned first so that all the chemicals that were sprayed are removed.
- Pears should be sorted according to their size and shape.
- Grading is done as per their quality and colour.
- Fully matured fruits should be considered for harvesting.
- The Pears must be stored safely, so that they won’t get damaged.
- Up to 60 days, they can be stored in cold storage.
- For local markets they can be packed in carton boxes.
- For distant markets, the fruits should be packed carefully.
- Selling of fresh Pears is much preferred practice.
Yield of Pears per Tree:
The average yield of this fruit is 100- 20 kg of fruits per tree in a year.