Growing Pineapple Fruit
Let us learn today about basics of Growing Pineapple Fruit.
Introduction to Pineapple:
The plant of the pineapple is a tropical plant which fruits and edible fruit called as pineapple. The pineapple is one of the top fruits which is produced all over the world. The production of the fruit is also high. The pineapple is originated from the genus called Ananas. Pineapple belongs to Bromeliaceae family. The scientific name of the Pineapple is Ananas comosus. These pineapples are originated in Central, South America and the Caribbean.
In India, Pineapple is grown in the states like Karnataka, West Bengal, Bihar, Goa, Kerala, and also the North Eastern parts of India. It’s very nutritious and also the Pineapple’s are very enjoyable by everyone. It can be consumed directly as a fruit. The Pineapple has become a characteristic ingredient in preparation of rice dishes, meat, vegetable, and fish.
Characteristics of Pineapple:
Pineapple Plant: The plant of pineapple is a herbaceous perennial plant with long sword like leaves, arranged in a spiral central stem and a terminal flower. The plant reaches up to a height of 0.9 – 1.8 m height and also the width.
Pineapple Leaves: The leaves are like sessile and they are arranged to the plant with a central stem. The leaf size increases as the plant growth increases. The length of the leaf is 5 – 20 cm when it is young and when the plant matures the length of the leaf will be 1.5 m. The end of the leaf is sharp and the tamper progressively at the tip. Depending on the Pineapple tree variety the leaves may sometimes have spines on their edges sometimes they may not have the spines. On a plant there are 70 – 80 leaves.
Pineapple Flowers: The flower, fruit, and stem grow from the apical growing point. For a stem the flowers that are contain are 50 – 200 individual flowers and the plant is also crowned with numerous short leaves. The flower has three sepals and petals, and also it has 6 simens and 1 pistil. At the bases the flowers are white and violet blue at the tips. A hairy bracket is surrounded to each flower.
Pineapple Fruit: The pineapple fruit is seedless syncarp. The fruit contains fused ovaries, that base of the sepals and bracts and also the cortex of the central core. The fruit should be harvested when they are matured. The fruit average weight is up to 2.3 kg. The fruit is yellow – green, yellow and pleasant in aroma. The pulp is yellow, to golden yellow in colour and the flesh is sweet and juicy.
Properties of Pineapple:
Nutrients present in Pineapple are:
- Fat: 0.12 g
- Energy: 50 kcal
- Carbohydrates: 13.12 g
- Protein: 0.54 g
- Minerals that are present in the pineapple are Calicum, Iron, Zinc, Sodium, Potsssium, Phosphorous, Manganese and Maganesium.
- A vitamin that is present in pineapple is ‘ C’.
Cultivars/varieties of the Pineapple:
- The size of the fruit is large in size.
- They are oblong in shape and also tapering toward the crown.
- The flesh is pale yellow in colour.
- They are fibreless.
- They are juicy.
- These come under queen groups.
- They are sweet blended with acidic taste.
- They have natural alcoholic flavor.
- This also belongs to Queen group.
- This is sour in taste.
- But this variety is smaller in size.
- This variety of pineapple is a deep yellow – deep red in colour.
- These are medium in size.
- The yellow pineapples in this fruit are more fibrous and oblong in shape.
- The red ones are sweeter then the yellow pineapples.
- These are used for the table’s purpose.
- These are rich yellow in colour.
- The flesh inside the fruit is golden yellow in colour.
- These are less juicy, but crispy in nature.
- The aroma of the pineapple is very typical of this variety.
- While removing the skin of this variety we need to cut deep eyes which are small.
- These are brownish red in colour, short and has spiny leaves.
- This variety is oblong in shape they are tapering near the crown.
- These are shallow, broad eyes turn yellow when the fruit gets matured completely.
- This variety is pale yellow in colour, they are fiberless and they are juicy flesh.
- The leaves of this variety are a short set of spines near the tips and also near the base where it is attached to the stem to the main branch.
- This variety charcterstics are similar to the Kew.
- But the fruit is larger in size than the Kew fruit and the plant is also larger in size.
Soil and Climate requirements for Growing Pineapple Fruit:
For Growing Pineapple Fruits any type of soil can be used. But they thrive well in sandy loam soil which is ideal for Growing Pineapple Fruit. The first most basic requirement for the Growing Pineapple Fruit should be well drained soil. The pineapples can grow even in heavy soils. Clay soil has good drainage capacity. The pH level should be 5.5 – 6.0 and the soil should be slightly acidic soil.
The climate which is suitable for pineapple cultivation is a humid climate with ample rainfall. In costal region this type of climate is found. The ideal temperature is 22˚C – 32˚C the leaf formation takes place in 32˚C. And the root development takes place in a etmeprature of 29 C. The rainfall, which is required for Growing Pineapple Fruit is 100 – 150 cm.
Read: Growing Avocado Fruits.
Land preparation and Planting for Growing Pineapple Fruit:
In the trenches the pineapples are grown. Before planting the weeds, pebbles and unwanted material should be removed from the main field. The land should be ploughed several times as the soil attains fine tilth and also smooth texture. After ploughing and levelling the pits should be dug. Each pit should be 15 – 30 cm deep and also 90 cm in width. The ideal time for planting is August – October and April – May. But the harvesting should be avoided during rainy seasons.
Propagation method for Growing Pineapple Fruit:
The pineapple plants are propagated through crown, slip and sucker. When we plant the crowns they bear, flowers 19 – 20 months after the plantation and also the suckers flowers 12 months after plantation. The material which is used for Growing Pineapple Fruit is should be 5 – 6 months old. It takes more time for flowering from the sucker, slip and crown.
Manure and Fertilization method in Growing Pineapple Fruit:
For better and more effective crop we should use nitrogen and potassium. These will help the soil when there will be inbuilt into the soil at a great extend. These should be used in right time and also in appropriate amounts. For each and every plant we should supply nitrogen along with K20 at a quantity of 12 grams because there is no need of Phosphorus.
Irrigation methods in Growing Pineapple Fruit:
The pineapple crop is a rain-fed crop. The pineapples are mostly grown in rain-fed conditions. Further the size and quality of the fruit will be good when the irrigation is given along with the supplementary farming. The crop gets plenty of rainfall. Or else the supplementary irrigation will not work properly. For producing the fruit even in the off – season the irrigation should be given on a regular basis. Even during the lean period also we will get good returns.
Intercultural methods in Growing Pineapple Fruit:
Weeding: The unwanted weeds should be removed this may cause the plant pest and disease. Weeding should be done regularly in a year the weeding should be done at least 3 – 4 times in a year. For eliminating the weeds manual method and weedicides application can be used.
Pruning: The unwanted parts that are dead should be removed from the plant. The unwanted material like branch tips, branches, shoot buds or roots.
Mulching: The mulching is also one of the good controls of the weeds. The weeds can be controlled by mulching. In the process of mulching the soil should be firmed with the weeds, which makes the moisture hold in the soil.
Earthing: The plants of pineapple have shallow roots. The roots are prone to the lodging. If plants get lodged during the development of fruit, then it will result the uneven fruit development and also the irregular growth. For the plants earthing up helps in good anchoring.
Pest and Diseases control measures in Growing Pineapple Fruit:
The pests that affect the pineapple plant more frequently are mealy bugs and scale insects. The diseases will not expose to the pineapple crop if there is any exposure of diseases, then the diseases will be stem root. For controlling the pests and disease either the plants that are affected should be destroyed or else we should restore good drainage system. The drainage can help to avoid the water-logging as this cause pest and diseases to the plant. These can be controlled by natural methods and also by chemical methods.
Harvesting techniques of Pineapples:
After planting the plants the plant starts flowering after 12 – 15 months and the plant start fruiting after 15 – 18 months. These all also depends on the variety. Under natural conditions, the harvesting of pineapple is done during the month of May – August. After 5 months of flowering the fruit usually ripens.
Post harvesting techniques of Pineapples:
Cleaning: After the fruits are harvested from the tree they should be washed and dried in a shade so that the fertilizers that are applied on the fruit will be removed.
Sorting: The pineapple should be sorted as per the shape and size
Grading: Pineapples should be graded as per the quality and colour.
Storage: For 10 – 15 days the fruits with the crown can be kept without damage. For slowing down the ripening process the fruit should be refrigerated when the fruits are transported for a long distance. These pineapples can be stored for 20 days under the temperature of 10˚C – 13˚C this is a refrigerating temperature. The exact temperature for storing the pineapple is 7.2˚C and with relative humidity of 80 – 90 %.
Packing: These can be packed in baskets, which are made with bamboo strips. In the local market the fruits are arranged in baskets which are 20 – 25 kg.
Yield of Pineapples:
The yield of the Pineapple plant completely depends on the care and management practices done to the crop. The average yield of the Pineapple in a hectare of land is 50 – 80 tonnes in a year.