Growing Tea Plants:
The following details are about Growing Tea.
INTRODUCTION TO GROWING TEA
The botanical name of TEA is Camellia sinensis, it is originated in China. TEA called as “KING OF BEVERAGE”. The second largest producer of tea in the world is India, while China is first, including the famous Assam tea and Darjeeling tea are famous in India. The Chai is likely to have come from Persian.
TEA NAMES IN DIFFERENT LANGUAGE
Afrikaans – tee; Armenian- թեյ[tʰɛj]; German- Tee; Indonesian –teh; Irish- tae; Italian- tè; Greek- τέϊον téïon; Telugu- tēnīr; English- tea; Dutch- thee; Irish- tae; Italian- tè; French- thé;
VARIETIES OF TEA
- BSS 1.
- BSS 2.
- BSS 3.
- BSS 4.
- BSS 5.
- Biclonal seed stocks and Grafts.
Tea Can Be Prepared In the following forms:
- Black tea.
- Green tea.
- Flowering tea.
- Oolong tea.
- Premium or delicate tea.
- Pu-erh tea.
- Cold brew and sun tea.
SOIL AND CLIMATE FOR GROWING TEA
Tea grows in the well drained soil with high amount of organic matter and pH 4.5 to 5.5. The performance of tea is excellent at growing up to range from 1000 meters to 2,500 meters.Optimum temperature is required to grow tea is 20 °C to 27 °C.
NURSERY PREPARATION FOR GROWING TEA
For the preparation of excellent tea growing conditions, the nursery soil should be well drained and deep loam in nature with pH of 4.5 to 4.8. The soil and sand used in the preparation of rooting medium should be tested for pH and it should be free from pest, diseases, nematode infestation. The soil should be sanitized.
Soil pH can be reduced by treating the soil with Aluminium sulphate. For the preparation of seed bed the nursery soil is prepared into individual beds of one metre width and about 8 cm height and of a convenient length for tea growth. Then the beds are drenched with 2% solution of Aluminium sulphate applied at 10 litres/2.5 sq.m of area. Over this another layer of soil of 8 cm height is spread and again drenched with equal quantity of water twice. Then the soil is allowed to dry and the pH is checked before use in the nursery.
PREPARATION OF SLEEVES FOR TEA GROWING
For the preparation of polythene sleeves, the sleeves size should be a 150 or 200 gauge and 10 cm width and 30 cm to 45 cm length. For irrigation the holes are provided at the bottom. The lower ¾ of the sleeves should be filled with 1:3 sand and soil mixture and the top 1/4 with 1:1 sand and soil mixture and staked in rows. A polythene sleeve provides overhead shade to the tea to grow.
SELECTION OF MOTHER BUSH AND ITS TREATMENT IN GROWING TEA
Tea grower should select bush as a mother, which is healthy and vigorously growing high yielding one. Apply to each selected bush with 40 g of young tea mixture + 60:90 NK mixture up to 5 years. The mixture has to apply before taking the cuttings.
- 5 % AlSO4 + 1 % MgSO4 (before 3 weeks).
- 2 % Zn SO4 (before 2 weeks).
- 1 % Urea (before 1 week).
Cuttings should be taken on April to May and August to September. Semi hard-wood cuttings are prepared with one leaf and internodes with a slanting cut at the bottom.
Planting of cuttings for Growing Tea
Tea plants can be propagated from seed and cuttings. Sleeves are watered thoroughly and holes are made in the soil. The cuttings are planted in the hole and the soil around is pressed firmly to avoid airspace followed by watering is given. The polythene tents may be provided which maintain high humidity and regulate the temperature inside the soil. The plant cuttings may take 10 to 12 weeks for rooting. After 90 days i.e. when all the cuttings have rooted, the polythene tent may be removed gradually over a period of 10 to 15 days.
MANURING OF NURSERY IN GROWING TEA
The manuring is done after the tent is removed the cuttings are sorted and staked.30 g of Nursery soluble mixture of the following composition dissolved in 10 litres of water may be applied over an area of 4 sq.m. This should be done fortnightly.
Composition of the fertilizer
- Ammonium phosphate (20:20).
- Potassium sulphate (or).
- Magnesium sulphate.
- Zinc sulphate.
METHODS OF PLANTING FOR GROWING TEA
Single Hedge System For Growing Tea:
In this method, the tea plant planted by taking spacing and adopted into plot of 1.20 x 0.75 m accommodating 10,800 plants/ha.
Double Hedge System For Growing Tea:
The double hedge system more suitable for tea production spacing adopted is 1.35 x 0.75 x 0.75 m accommodating 13,200 plants/ha.
Season and planting For Growing Tea:
The tea can be grown in the season may to June or September to October, Sleeves should be opened length wise without injuring the roots and planted in the pit and the soil is gently pressed. After that water is added to planting.
IRRIGATION FOR GROWING TEA
The most suitable irrigation is drip is given for young tea seedlings during summer months. Irrigation was most important for the high vegetation regularly is given for the crop growth.
MANURING FOR GROWING TEA
Manuring practice is done 2 months after planting. Phosphorous is applied at 80 – 100 kg/ha as Rock phosphate once in a year by placement at 15 – 25 cm depth up to the first pruning and thereafter once in two years. N: K ratio 2: 3 should be adapted for the first 3 years and a ratio 1: 1 thereafter.
|Year of application|| Total weight|
|No.of Applications||Qty/plant (Grams)|
|4th year onward||350||305||7||35||19|
WEEDING IN GROWING TEA
Mainly in tea we found the perennial grasses (Forbicot weeds), it can be controlled by spraying the Glyphosate 1.75 lit + Kaoline 2 lit + 2 kg of wetting agent in 450 lit, of water followed by Gramoxone 500 ml in 200 lit of water to control dicot habitat.WEEDING IN GROWING TEA
TRAINING FOR GROWING TEA
To induce more laterals branches of the tea plant, centering should be carried out at 3 to 5 months after planting. The main leader stem should be cut, leaving 8 to 10 matured leaves. It is done for healthy growth of tea.
When the height reaches to 35 cm, tipping is done. The second tipping is done at 60 cm from ground level.
PRUNING FOR GROWING TEA
Pruning should be carried out to maintain convenient height of bush and to remove dead and diseased branches. Pruning should be done in April to May or August to September.
Rejuvenation pruning for Growing Tea
Rejuvenation pruning should be carried out when the whole bush reached 30 cm from ground level, the cut near to the ground level bushes.
Hard pruning for Growing Tea
Hard pruning should be done for the young tea at 30 to 45 cm (12″ to 18″) for proper spread of bushes to avoid the pest and diseases infestation.
Medium pruning for Growing Tea
To check the bush growing to an inconvenient height this type of pruning should be carried out in order to stimulate new wood and to maintain the foliage at lower levels less than 60 cm.
Light pruning for Growing Tea
Pruning depends on the previous history of the bush raising, the height of medium pruning should be done by an inch or less to manageable heights for plucking (less than 65 cm).
Skiffing for Growing Tea
This is the lightest of all pruning methods. A removal of only the top 5 to 8 cm new growth is done so as to obtain a uniform level of pruning surface (more than 65 cm).
PLANT PROTECTION / CARE IN GROWING TEA
The scales can be controlled by spraying Carbaryl 50 WP @ 2 g/lit. or Quinalphos 25 EC @ 2 ml/lit or Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2 ml/lit. Wear the safe guards while applying the spraying.
Sahydrassis / Phassus borer
Locate the particle mat covering at the base tea bush and remove. Insert a thick wire in the bore hole to kill the larvae. Wear the safe guards while applying the spraying.
Thrips can be controlled by spraying any one of the following insecticide. (Note: Wear the safe guards while applying the spraying).
- Azadirachtin 5 % Neem extract concentrate at the rate 5.0 ml/10 lit.
- Azadirachtin 1.0 % EC (neem based) at the 2.0 ml/lit.
- Ethion 50%EC at the rate of 5.0 ml/10 lit.
- Profenofos 50 % EC at the rate of 2.0 ml/lit.
- Quinalphos 25 % EC at the rate of 7.5 ml/10 lt.
Aphids can be controlled by spraying phosalone 35 % EC @ 2.0 ml/lit Red spider mite, Pinkmite, scarlet mite. Wear the safe guards while applying the spraying.
- Azadirachtin 5 % Neem extract concentrate at the rate 5.0 ml/10 lit.
- Azadirachtin 1.0 % EC (neem based) at the rate 2.0 ml/lit.
- Dicofol 18.5 % SC at the rate 2.0 ml/lit.
- Ethion 50%EC at the rate 5.0 ml/10 lit.
- Fenazaquin at the rate 10 % EC 1.6 ml/lit.
- Fenpyroximate at the rate 5 % EC 1.2 ml/lit.
- Flumite 20%SC/flufenzine 20%SC at the rate 5.0 ml/10 lit.
- Hexythiazox 5.45% EC at the rate 1.2 ml/lit.
- Phosalone 35 % EC at the rate 1.0 ml/lit.
- Profenofos 50 % EC at the rate 2.0 ml/lit.
- Propargite 57 % EC at the rate 2.0 ml/lit.
- Spiromesifen 22.9 % SC at the rate 1.0 ml/lit.
The blister blight can be controlled by applying the following control measures. Spray 210 g Copper oxychloride and Nickel chloride per ha at 5 days interval from June to September; 11 days intervals in October and November. Wear the safe guards while applying the spraying. Spray Hexagonazole 200 ml + Copper oxychloride 210 g 5 days interval/ha.
HARVESTING IN GROWING TEA
Plucking of tea leaves cab be started when the tea bush is 3 years old. The plucking of extreme tip of the growing branch consists of an unopened bud together with two leaves is popularly known as “Two leaves and a bud”, while fine plucking is anything less than this. The plucking continues throughout the year at weekly intervals during March to May and at intervals of 10 to14 days during the other months. Plucking is done by the bare hands human labours are required for the harvesting, while harvesting ware the hand glues for the precision.
- Rush period
During rush period harvesting plucking is done at 7 to 10 days interval.
- Lean period
During lean period harvesting plucking is done at 10 to 15 days interval.
YIELD IN GROWING TEA
The estimated tea yield of green leaves is 10 t/ha.