How To Grow Kiwi Fruits:
The following content is all about How To Grow Kiwi Fruits.
Introduction To Kiwi Fruits
Kiwi is one of the wonderful fruits cultivated mainly in New Zealand, China, France, Greece, Italy, USA, Japan, Australia, Spain, and Chile. This fruit is popularly known as “Chinese gooseberry”. Kiwifruit belongs to the family of “Actinidiaceae” and genus of “Actinidia”. In New Zealand, Kiwi fruit name derives from Kiwi bird. Kiwifruit is native to eastern and north-central China. The ‘oval’ variety is a famous commercial cultivar. This fruit is of dull greenish-brownish skin with golden or green flesh. It as tiny black seeds in it. As more people are showing interest growing Kiwis indoors and outdoors. The Kiwifruit has good health benefits. Kiwi fruits are a rich source of vitamin ‘B’ and ‘C’. They have very good amounts ‘phosphorus’, ‘potassium’ and ‘calcium’. Kiwi fruits can be consumed fresh/raw or may be combined with other fruits in salads.
You can grow Kiwi fruits in your backyard, big containers or pots. There is a scope for great profits in Kiwis growing since local and export demand. If you are planning to set up large-scale Kiwi orchard, you must prepare Kiwi growing business plan. Kiwi farming is lucrative and profitable horticulture businesses. Let us discuss more how to grow Kiwi fruits in Containers and how to grow Kiwi fruits outdoors/open fields.
Scientific / Botanical Name of Kiwi Fruit
- Actinidia deliciosa.
Common Names of Kiwi Fruit
- Chinese gooseberry.
Top Ten Production Countries of Kiwi Fruits
- New Zealand.
- The United States.
Kiwi Fruit Varieties / Kiwi Fruit Cultivars
Some of the world most popular Kiwi varieties.
- Golden Kiwi fruit.
- New Zealand Hayward.
- Hardy Kiwifruit.
- Fuzzy Kiwi fruit.
- Abbott Kiwi fruit.
- Bruno Kiwi fruit.
- Oval Kiwi fruit.
- Hayward Kiwi fruit.
- Allison Kiwi fruit.
- Monty Kiwi fruit.
- Elmwood Kiwi variety.
- Dexter Kiwi variety.
- Tewi Kiwi variety.
- Saanicheon Kiwi variety.
- Vincent Kiwi variety.
- Matua Kiwi variety.
- Tomuri Kiwi fruit.
- Chinese egg gooseberry.
- Baby Kiwi fruit.
- Red Kiwi fruit.
- Arctic Kiwi fruit.
- Silvervine Kiwi fruit.
- Purple Kiwi fruit.
How To Grow Kiwi Fruits in Open Fields / Out Doors
How To Grow Kiwi Fruits – Climate Requirement
- Kiwi plants need a long growing season at least 230 to 240 days frost free conditions.
- The Kiwi plants can be cultivated at 900 meters to 1500 meters above mean sea level (m.s.l.).
- For best growth, it requires 700 to 800 chilling hours.
- The uniform and well-distributed annual rainfall of 150 to 160 cm is good enough for Kiwi plant growth.
- Kiwi plants do not withstand strong winds and frost during their growth period.
- High temperatures above 36°C and low humidity conditions are not favorable to Kiwi plant growth.
How To Grow Kiwi Fruits – Soil Requirement
- Kiwifruit prefers somewhat acidic soils.
- Deep, well-drained sandy loam, rich in organic matter soils with a pH range of 5.0 to 6.8 is good for Kiwi fruit growing.
- Avoid salty soils as they are not suitable for Kiwifruit growing.
- Go for a soil test to find out any nutrient and micro-nutrient deficiencies.
How To Grow Kiwi Fruits – Land / Soil Preparation
- Kiwifruit can tolerate partial shade conditions, but prefers a sunny location to grow.
- Steep land should be contoured into terraces for planting Kiwi plant vines. The rows should be oriented in a north-south direction for getting maximum sunlight.
- You should bring the soil to fine tilth stage by giving 2 to 3 deep ploughings followed by two harrowings. A weed-free field is essential for Kiwi fruit growing to obtain quality produce and maximum yield.
- A thorough land preparation should be done before growing commercial Kiwi fruits. As part of the land preparation, Appropriate pits should be dug and a mixture of FMY (farmyard manure) should be filled.
How To Grow Kiwi Fruits – Propagation
The commercial propagation of Kiwi plants is done by:
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- Vegetative method (cuttings).
However, Kiwi plants can be grown from seeds as well.
How To Plant Kiwis
- Planting Season: Spring is preferred for plantation. Kiwifruit plants/vines require mild winters and a long frost-free growing season. However, hardy Kiwi plants can be grown in cooler climatic conditions.
- Plant Spacing: The Kiwi planting distance varies from variety to variety and also depends on the training system.
- Row-to-Row distance in Pergola training system: 20 feet.
- Plant-to-Plant distance in Pergola training system: 17 feet to 20 feet.
- Row-to-Row distance in T-bar training system: 12 feet.
- Plant-to-Plant distance in T-bar training system: 20 feet.
- Pollination can be carried out by male and female plants in the orchard. In this case, plant 1 male Kiwi plant for 7 Kiwi female plants. Only female plants are fruit bearers. Commercial orchard can practice the pollination in Kiwi fruit growing by insects like honeybees.
How to Grow Kiwi Fruits – Kiwi Plant Companions
- Lemon balm.
How To Grow Kiwi Fruits – Watering / Irrigation
- Kiwi orchard requires good amounts of water during the entire growing season. However, there should be well-drainage in the field. To prevent heat stress, it is recommended to water regularly in summer.
- The water stress symptoms of Kiwi plant include browning of the leaves (around the edges), drooping leaves, and complete defoliation with re-growth of new shoots.
- The frequency of irrigation in the commercial growing of Kiwis depends on soil type, climate. You need to ensure the soil moisture throughout its growing period.
- An irrigation interval of 8 to 10 days found beneficial in commercial cultivation of Kiwis.
- Drip irrigation would be the best idea in water scarcity regions.
How To Grow Kiwi Fruits – Manure & Fertilizers
As just like any other plants, Kiwi plants respond very well to manures and nutrient fertilizers like Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Potash.
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- Well-decomposed farmyard manure (FMY) or Garden compost of 20 to 25 kg/plant (During pits preparation as basal dose) should be applied.
- Half kg (500 grams) of the fertilizer mixture which contains 40 percent of ‘N'(Nitrogen), 30 percent of ‘K’ (potash), and ‘P’ (phosphorous) / plant during the first 5 years.
- After 5 years of the plantation, supplement the Kiwi plant’s base with 1 kg of ‘Nitrogen’, 0.5 kg of ‘Phosphorous’, and 1 kg of ‘Potash’ every year for good yield and quality produce.
- Avoid too much application of Boron and Salts (Sodium).
In all cases of nitrogen application, you should follow the split dose application process.
How To Grow Kiwi Fruits – Intercrops
- In the commercial cultivation of Kiwi fruits, farmers can utilize inter spaces to grow inter crops like vegetables/herbs/legume crops. This is only possible during the first 4 to 5 years planting Kiwi.
How To Grow Kiwi Fruits – Weed Control
Weeds are the one share every input of the main crop. Hence, it is very important in preventing weeds at the plant base. You can mulch the plant base with dry leaves or available mulch covers from markets. Mulching the kiwi plants will protect from moisture loss and soil erosion apart from weed control. You can carry out manual weeding at plant base when they emerge. You can give shallow raking between plants and rows without damaging plant roots.
How To Grow Kiwi Fruits – Plant Protection Measures
- You must make arrangements to protect the Kiwi plants from high winds, frost and high temperatures.
How To Grow Kiwi Fruits – Training
- To establish a strong and well-formed framework, kiwifruit vines should be trained with the help of wooden/iron/concrete pole supports.
- Kniffin system of supporting structure can be adopted.
- Keep the support structures 5.5 feet to 6.5 feet from ground level by maintaining a distance of 20 feet between supports.
- String a 2.5 mm thick and tensile wire on the top of these fixed supports.
- If needed, cross wiring can also be done on these pillars.
How To Grow Kiwi Fruits – Pruning
- Pruning must be carried out for healthy growth of Kiwi vines. You can remove the extra tangles from the plants, cut the canes from male plants, and Remove the excessive and vigorously grown wood.
How To Grow Kiwi Fruits – Pests and Diseases
Common pests in Kiwi plantation.
- Spider mites.
- Boxelder bugs.
- Japanese beetles.
- Leaf-roller caterpillars.
Common diseases in Kiwi plantation
- Botrytis Fruit Rot.
- Juice Blotch.
- Crown Gall.
- Water Staining.
- Armillaria Root Rot.
- Bleeding Canker.
- Bacterial Blight.
- Sooty Mold of Fruit.
- Phytophthora Root and.
- Crown Rot.
For symptoms and control measures of these pests and diseases in Kiwifruit plantation, talk to horticulture professional. Don’t treat plants with pesticides, chemicals without knowing the actual problem.
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How To Grow Kiwi Fruits – Harvesting and Post-Harvesting
- Kiwi plants start bearing fruits 5 years after initial planting. However, you can expect a commercial yield only after 7 to 8 years of plantation. The maturity of Kiwi fruits depends on the temperature of the region. Picking larger size fruits are recommended. As Kiwi fruits have stiff hairs on their surface, rub these surfaces with a coarse cloth.
- Kiwi fruits have a good shelf life and keeping the quality. Grading of the fruits should be done based on weight. Use cardboard boxes for packing hard and graded fruits to send them to local markets.
How To Grow Kiwi Fruits – Yield
- The yield of Kiwi fruits depends on the type of soil, irrigation, climate, planting method and other orchard management practices. One can obtain a yield of 75 kg to 100 kg / vine. Kiwi vines on trellis may yield up to 25 tonnes/ha after 7 to 8 years.