Kisan Farming Systems:
The following is all about Kisan Farming Systems and Agriculture Information.
Introduction to Kisan Farming and Types Of Agriculture
India is agriculture-based country, India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture sector plays a significant role in Indian Economy. India is the seventh largest agricultural exporter worldwide and the sixth largest net exporter.
India in the second or third largest producer of dry fruits, agricultural-based textile raw materials, roots and tuber crops, pulses, farmed fishes, eggs, coconuts, sugarcane and many vegetables. India is among top 5 producers of coffee, tea, and cotton. And even the top producers of livestock, and poultry meat.
India is the largest producer of Fresh fruits, Lemons, Milk, castor oil seeds, sunflower, Pulses, ginger, chickpeas, spices, millet, okra, arecanut, pigeon peas, papayas, jute, bananas, chilies, peppers, mangoes, and guavas etc.
India is the second largest producer of wheat, Rice, Sugarcane, Groundnuts, Garlic, Peas, Lentils, sesame seed, tea, cow milk, onions, cottonseed, cabbages, cashew nuts, and silk-worm, etc.
Kisan Farming Systems in India
Farming systems that Kisan in India do are Subsistence farming, organic farming, and Industrial Farming.
Majority of Kisan in India do subsistence farming. This is a self-sufficiency farming system where Kisan grow food for surviving their farming. They earn enough money for self-requirements with less surplus trade. They use all traditional methods of farming without any fertilizers or pesticides and they yield very less. Along with farming they grown animals like cows, goats, buffalos, hens that can give an extra income. In this substance farming, Kisan mainly grows wheat, rice, and vegetables.
Dry land farming is done where the rainfall is low and irrigation facilities, crops are like Jowar, Bajra and pluses are grown as these crops need very less water. Only one crop is grown in dry farming.
Wet land farming is done where the rainfall is high and irrigated areas, crops like rice, sugarcane, and vegetables are grown in these areas. Two crops are raised in one year in the Kharif and another in the Rabi seasons.
Shifting agriculture is done forest areas with heavy rainfall. Kisan levels the forest ground and makes them suitable for farming. Kisan cultivates for 2 to 3 years once the soil gets leached and unproductive the Kisan shifts to another part of the forest.
This type of shits farming is practiced on a small scale in the forest areas. Dry paddy, maize, millet, and vegetables are crops commonly grown in this type of farming.
This farming in done by using fertilizers and pesticides on large scale. Kisan implements all the possible methods for high yields. Kisan raises more than one crop in a year. Intensive agriculture is widely practiced in the northern plains and coastal plains of India. In the intensive farming, farmers use high-yielding varieties of seeds, green manures and pesticides to protect the crops.
Plantation farming is bush or tree farming, Main crops produced on plantations are tea, coffee, spices, coconut, and rubber. Plantation farming is single-crop farming and fruits crops like apples, mangoes, lemons, organs etc are also grown. This farming system needs huge capital, fertilizers, technical irrigation methods and transport facilities.
This farming implemented in hilly areas of India. These farming need skilled labor, machines and plantations are managed like industrial units. Plantation farming system is mainly export oriented and crop life cycle is more than two years.
In this farming system, kisan produce only those crops that have a good market. The main crops in the commercial farming system are wheat, sugarcane, cotton, jute, oilseeds etc. Kisan implements modern methods for cultivation to reduce the production cost.
This commercial farming is one Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Andhra Pradesh etc.
Crop rotation is growing of the number of crops one after the other in a fixed rotation to maintain the fertility of the soil. This rotation farming may complete in one year or can take more than one year. The rotation of crops depends upon the soil conditions and Kisan economic conditions.
Crop rotated are like pluses or any leguminous crops are grown after the cereal crops. Fertilizer intensive crops like sugarcane or tobacco are grown rotated with cereal related crops.
Integrated Farming or mixed or multiple Farming:
In this farming system crop farming and livestock farming are done together. This farming system gives you a good output. Multiple farming is used to promote the practice of growing two or more crops together. In multiple farming, a few crops having varying maturing periods are sown at the same time. Kisan implements these types of farming in areas having good rainfall or facilities of irrigation.
Crop farming with livestock farming is new process introduced in India. Crops along with the livestock farming give you good results. Fish farming along with poultry farming will also give you good results.
In this mixed farming efficient methods cultivation, easy good transport facility with nearby markets will give you good returns for the farmers.
Dairy farming is very popular farming system in India, Kisan does dairy farming to sell the milk and milk products. Cattle are reared near big cities or towns to provide dairy products for the people living and working in the urban areas. This farming is marker oriented, and it needs the labor force.
Dairy farming is a traditional business, you can sell your products in every place in India. And dairy products have demand round the year. And dairy farming is eco-friendly, and it doesn’t pollute the environment. Its waste of dairy is the best manure for the irrigation.
Fish farming is the process of raising fish commercially in tanks or ponds. Fish and fish products have a huge demand in India, 60% of Indians involve fish in their menu. India has the best climate for fish farming. Kisan in India uses various types of water sources for fish farming. They use specific types fishes that grow fast. Fish farming in India is very profitable and riskless business.
Poultry farming in India includes growing chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys and other fowls. Commercial poultry farming in India is profitable farming for Kisan and the young entrepreneurs. The initial investment for poultry farming is less and can start a small-scale productions unit. Many bank loans are available for this poultry farming.
Irrigation process done on hill and mountain slopes by cutting them in form of the terrace. This land is used for permanent agriculture. This type cultivation is implemented by Kisan in hilly areas.
Rice, vegetables, corn etc are grown in this terrace farming.
Cropping Seasons in India
India has three major cropping seasons
- Kharif Season – July to October– The crops that are grown on Kharif Season are rice, maize, sorghum, Tea, coffee, rubber, Sesame, Guar and cereals like pearl millet, dhal varieties, oilseeds cotton etc. Crops grown in this Kharif season needs a lot of water, and these crops harvest in September to October. And these crops are also called Monsoon crops.
Kisan usually sow crops at the beginning of the first rains towards the end of the May. Kharif crops are dependent are rainwater and its timing. Too much or too little or the rain at the wrong time may spoil the crop.
- Rabi Season-October to November- The crops that are grown in this Rabi season are wheat, barley, oats, cereals, pulses, linseed, oil seeds, vegetables etc. These crops are also called as winter crops are they need less water. These crops need the warm and cool weather to survive. Crops in grown in Rabi season are harvested in February to April.
Crops in Rabi season are grown with rainwater that has percolated into the ground or using irrigation. A medium rain in winter can harm the Rabi crops but is good for Kharif crops.
- Zaid Season- Crops between the months or March to June. The crops grown are vegetables and seasonal fruits. These crops are grown in the summer season and they require warm dry weather for the fast-growing and longer day length for flowering. Kisan produces the cucumber, muskmelon, watermelon, bitter gourd and pumpkin in this season. These crops are done in between the kharif and rabi crops, these crops also increase the soil fertility and can earn Kisan a decent amount of profits.
Crop Categories in India
- Food Crops- Major food crops in India are wheat, Rice, Millets, and pulses etc.
- Cash Crops- Major cash crops in India that have a good market are Sugarcane, Tobacco, Jute, and oilseeds etc.
- Plantation Crop: India is the largest producer of tea and coffee, and other popular crops in India re Rubber, coconut and Fruits crops like oranges, mango, lemons etc.
- Horticulture Crops: Crops grown in this category are fruits and vegetables.
Major Crops in India
- Rice: Kisan in India grow rice throughout the year both in kharif and rabi seasons. This crop mainly depends on the atmosphere. Rice crop requires good atmospheric moisture and good rainfall. Kisan implements transplantation technique to growing. The soil should be clay/ loamy, the temperature required is 24 degrees with 150 cm rainfall. West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Orissa, Assam, Tamil Nadu, Haryana are the largest producers of rice in India.
- Wheat: India is the largest producer of Wheat in the world. Wheat is rabi crop, grows well in clay loam and sandy loam soils. Kisan requires temperature of 17 to 20 degrees of temperature to grown. The minimum rainfall required for the wheat crop is 20-100 cm. The major producers of wheat in India are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Bihar, Gujrat, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Uttarakhand.
- Sugar Cane: Sugar Cane is the major cash crop in India, sugar cane required the rainy season of at least 7 to 8 months. Sugarcane is grown in both Kharif and Rabi, minimum temperature required is 20 °C to 26 °C. Kisan needs a minimum rainfall of 75 cm to 150 cm for the crop to yield goof output. Sugarcane requires clayey loamy soil or black cotton soil or red loamy soil or brown loamy soil. The states those are major producers of sugar cane in India are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab.
- Tea: India is the largest producer and consumer of Tea. Tea plantation grows well in tropical and subtropical climates. These plantations require sloppy areas. This crop requires rainfall of 150 cm to 300 cm and temperature should be between 20 to 30 degrees. Tea plantation needs hill slope areas with loamy soil which is acidic in nature with rich organic matter. Kisan cultivates tea leaves throughout the year. Assam, Darjeeling, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka are major producers of tea.
- Coffee: Coffee beans are grown at an altitude between 1000 meter to 1500 meter above the sea level. Kisan produces two types of coffee beans like Arabica and Robusta. These plantations require temperature 16°C to 28°C and rainfall of 150 cm to 260 cm. Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh are the largest producers of coffee beans.
- Spices: India is known for its spices and their importance for health. Kisan in India produces world’s best spices: Cardamom( Assam, Kerala and Tamil Nadu are major producers of cardamom), Pepper(Kerala producers world’s best pepper), Chillies( Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan), Tumeric (Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu), coconut( Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra), Cinnamon(Kerala), clove(Kerala), ginger(Kerala, Meghalaya, Sikkim). These spice crops require the temperature of 10-30 degrees and rainfall of 200-300 cm. Spices are mainly grown in Western Ghats and hilly areas.
And India is the major producer of Jute and Cotton.
Kisan Welfare Schemes in India
- Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana: This welfare program for Kisan by Indian Government. This scheme is implemented in all state of India.
- Soil Health Card Scheme: This scheme used for the farmer to test the fertility of the soil and use necessary precaution to make the soil suitable for good output.
- Paramparahat Krishi Vikas Yojana: This scheme helps the Kisan to promote the organic farming. And give loans to implement latest techniques to farming.
- National Horticulture Market.
- Development of Bee Keeping.
- Coconut Development.
- Neem Coated Urea.
- National Food Security Mission.
Apart from these schemes govt of India issued many types of crop loans for both all agricultural activities and even for harvesting purposes to benefit the kisan farming. Crop loans are issued at very low interest. Crop loans are given for both the short and long term. Not only the government even the private banks offer loans for Kisan at very reasonable interest.
Crop Insurance provides the Kisan a security to his investment in case natural disaster that spoils the yields or pests that kill the crops. Insurance will good financial support to the farmer in case of crop losses.