Introduction: Hello livestock farmers, let us discuss now about Pig farming Basics, Housing, Feeding, Breeding. Pig farming is a profitable business where many people with low income can opt this to earn money. However, to make it a successful and sustainable one, you need to require sufficient knowledge of how to efficiently raise the pigs/piglets, good management skills, and a good proper piggery business plan. This blog will explain you how to start the piggery farming business, and will guide you accordingly.
A guide to Pig Farming Basics, Housing, Feeding, Breeding
Pig farming is the most profitable business in India which provides income for millions of people, but there are some essential things you need to do before you venture into the piggery business. First select the farm size of pig farming business project i.e. the number of sows you want to keep; location of the pig farming business e.g. a piggery farm, and your target market. These choices can be done based on the amount of capital you have, and the size of your target market.If you do not have a huge capital, you can always start a small or grow your piggery business overtime slowly. You also need to work out on market research like who are you going to sell the pigs/porkers to? At what price? etc. and prepare a piggery business plan before you start the pig farming business.
Land for Pig Farming Business
To start your piggery/pig farming business in India, you require a large area for setting the necessary pig sty and other farm buildings. The pig farming project requires a gentle messy/untidy site with well-draining soils such as loamy soils, which is essential step as it enables easy flow of effluence. You should locate your piggery farm at least 1 kilometre away from the rivers to avoid possible contamination of water from effluence. First you need to asses if the land is suitable for operating a pig production business. It is better to select the place nearer to good roads for this pig farming project, as that will help to minimize costs and enable the farmer to have access to and fro the piggery business project. Your pig farming business plan should take into account the cost of purchasing or renting the land.
Housing as Part of Pig Farming Basics
You need to construct a good and efficient housing for the pigs in your farm. This will make management of the pigs easier and it reduces the mortality rate of the piglets. If you have proper housing at your pig farm, you can successfully rear 90% or more of all the live born piglets to market weight in the shortest possible time. Make a note that pigs at different stages of growth require different environments (temperatures) and different housings so make sure that you can provide them accordingly. Piglets require protection from very low temperatures to ensure that they grow to their maximum potential level.
The young and growing along with reproducing pigs must be protected against high temperatures. So you have to ensure that the piggery houses are built to protect the young and grown pigs against extreme temperature and bad weather conditions e.g. continuous rain and cold winds. Materials and equipment required for the construction of pig housing structures and buildings can be bought from hardwares and other shops which are specialized in selling agricultural inputs. Your piggery business plan should take into account the construction costs for the housing of pigs.
Breeding Pigs: Sows and Bows
To start your pig farming business, you require a good and healthy breeding stock. The breeding stocks you require are boars and sows. Boars are the male pigs which will service the sows, which are the female pigs. Ensure that you purchase a good breed of pigs. When you are buying the breeding stock, it is better to check all the farms and then buy from farms which are known to produce good and healthy pigs as the growth potential of your piglets will depend on the nature and quality of the parent stock. Hence it is of great importance to buy a good pig breeding stock from reliable piggery farmers.
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You require 1 boar for every 15-20 sows. The number of soars which you buy for your pig farming business will depend on the scale of your piggery business. One sow gives birth to 9-11 piglets from one pregnancy. A sow can fall pregnant twice a year. The pregnancy of a pig lasts for 3 months, 3 weeks and 3 days (114 days). The pig farming business plan should take into consideration based on the cost of buying the breeding stock.
Feeding the Pigs as part of Pig Farming Basics
You have to feed the pigs correctly. The pigs must be given the goodquality of feed as well as the correct quantity of feed, in turn it ensures that the pigs reproduce efficiently, grow efficiently, utilize the feed efficiently, produce good quality meat, thus maximizing the profits of your pig farming business. Feeding part is an essential thing in pig farming business and if you fail to give the proper feed to pigs then you may miss the slaughter weight targets and the desired quality of the pork. If this happens then it may result in huge loss in your pig farming business. Note that pigs require different types and different amount of feed depending at different stages of growth they are at. Your pig farming business plan should take into account all the feed costs at different stage of growth of the pigs.
Capital for a Pig Farming Business in India
Starting a pig farming business is capital intensive. The capital required for constructing the pig housings, purchasing the breeding stock, purchasing stock feeds and other costs associated with running a pig farming business. The amount of capital you need for your pig farming business will depend on the size of your piggery farming project. Your piggery business plan should clearly outline the money required to start and operate a pig production business. Here are the average estimations to start a pig farming business-
Costs for equipment –Rs. 30,000
Costs for Pigs (20 sows and 1 boar) – Rs. 1,00,000
Costs involved in constructing a shed – Rs. 1,50,000
Costs involved in medicines and vaccinations – Rs. 20,000
Costs involved for feed – Rs. 1,50,000
Labour charges – Rs. 20,000
Costs involved in Water Management – Rs. 50,000
Other costs – Rs. 20,000
Total Costs involved to start a medium scale pig farm is Rs. 5,90,000 approximately.
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Management and Labour as part of Pig Farming Basics
The number of employees required for pig farming business will depend on the size of your project. You will need pig keepers who will be responsible for feeding the pigs, cleaning and disinfecting the pig housings, washing the pigs and other duties. It is better to hire a finance and marketing team, depending on the size of your pig production business. Your pig farming project proposal should take into account the salary costs for all the people you are going to employ.
Pig Farming Marketing Strategies
You can slaughter your pigs when they are between the ages of 4 months to 6 months. The exact age at which you slaughter your pigs depends on whether you want to sell your pigs as porkers or as baconers. The market for pork is very huge and is ever increasing. The annual global demand of pork is approximately 11-13 million tonnes. You can supply pork to abattoirs, local butcher shops, retailers, hotels, supermarkets, restaurants, wholesalers and individual consumers. Pork has to be sold whilst it’s still fresh, thus you should locate your pig farm close to your market. The pig production business plan ought to include a proper marketing plan to use in your piggery business.
The export market for pork has a great value. As you grow your pig farming business you will be able to export the pork to other countries. The largest importers of pork are Japan, Russia, Hong Kong, China, South Korea and Mexico.For an in-depth analysis of the pig farming business, it is better to purchase our well-researched and comprehensive piggery business plan. How to keep the pigs, lack of understanding of the financial side of the business, lack of understanding of the industry, the risks involved, costs and profitability of the business often leads to huge losses to farmers.
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