Polyhouse Rose Farming
The following write-up is all about Polyhouse Rose Farming
Introduction To Polyhouse Rose Farming
Growth and healthy production of plants under controlled favorable conditions in closed or partially closed spaces are called polyhouse. The Polyhouse concept emerged to undertake adverse environmental conditions such as an excess of raining, high temperature, extreme cold condition, air flow etc.
Types Of Polyhouses for Polyhouse Rose Farming
Polyhouses have different shape and sizes and on this basis, they are classified into three types.
- Ridges and furrow type.
- Sawtooth type.
Shape and size vary according to the climatic conditions of the region/Country. According to the climatic, expenditure, you can select the polyhouse shape.
It can be designed as temperatures controlled way:
- Uncontrolled – where the only top part is covered well (GH1).
- Partially controlled – where polyhouse has open and closed window (GH2).
- Completely controlled – where windows are absent. It is totally Computerized (GH3).
It can differ by covering material:
1) Glass House.
2) Shade Net.
3) Poly House.
Ployhouse can be constructed as given below:
- Attached: When it is attached or supported by a part of the building or any type of constructed wall.
- Detached: When it is in a free-standing position.
- Connected: When several polyhouses are joined together in a series.
Selection of Site/Location for Polyhouse Rose Farming
Following things are taken into account:
1 The selection Site should be free from pollution.
2 Water should be available regularly.
3 Supply of electricity (Three phase) should be regular.
4 Soil should be properly levelled and drained.
5 Polyhouse should be near to roadside means proper approachable road must be there to go to polyhouse.
6 Some space should be there nearby for further extension.
7 Expertise and labours should be available when required.
Direction of Polyhouse Rose Farming
Polyhouse should have light from all sides and wind current should not damage the polyhouse.
To overcome these problems, Polyhouse should be preferably South-North in direction.
Other Essential things
- Should have a cool chamber (0’C) to accumulate and store the final product.
- Water pH should be between 5.5 to 7 & electric conductivity of water should be 0.01 to 0.1
- PH of soil should be between 5.5 to 6.5 and electric conductivity 0.6 to 0.8.
Material Used For Shading Polyhouse Rose Farming
- After construction of poly houses, it is covered by a semitransparent sheet which can be a poly film, Acrylic, polyethylene, or polycarbonate material. Use of poly film is more profitable.
- The poly film protects UV rays to enter the polyhouse, transparency is between 80% to 9o%. Gauge varies 200 to 800 micron. A poly film can tolerate 50’C and its lifespan is about three years. 1 kg poly film covers 5.38 sq. meter area of a poly house.
Soil Sterilization Polyhouse Rose Farming
The land was sterilized thoroughly with four percent formalin @ 15 litres per square meter area and covered with a polyethene film for 5 days. Then the film was removed and the land was aerated for 28 hours. Later, the beds were thoroughly irrigated to drain the chemical residues.
Soil has to be prepared under strict supervision. First, the floor is levelled properly and then raised beds are prepared using red soil, fine sand, and well-decomposed cow dung or coco-pit. The soil is disinfected using formalin solution and then used for growing the crops. Crops can be grown directly on the beds or in pots.
Bed preparation Polyhouse Rose Farming
The land area inside the polyhouse was thoroughly dug to a depth of 35 cm. All the weeds, stubbles, stones etc. were completely removed. The land was incorporated with well-decomposed farmyard manure, sand, coir pith in the ratio 2:1:1 and urea (15 kg) was also applied to the soil. The land was irrigated three to four times, ploughed again and brought to a fine tilth. Raised beds of 50 cm height and 85 cm width to a length of greenhouse were prepared with the walking space of 55 cm between beds.
Planting In Polyhouse Rose Farming
Healthy budded plants were planted in rows at spacing 35 cm x 25 cm. The beds were irrigated thoroughly to maintain the optimum soil moisture condition.
Some of the varietes are Red Burlin, First Red, Passion, Tropical Amezan, Naranga, Grand Gala, Upper Class, African Dawn, Shakira, and Gold Strike.
Indian Rose cultivars for Polyhouse Farming:
- Hybrid Teas: Abhisarika, Akashsundari, Anupama, Anuraag, Arjun, Ganga, Dr. B.P. Pal, Golden afternoon, Haseena, Mridula, Nurjehan, Poornima, Rakta gandha, President Radhakrishnan.
- Floribundas: Akash nartaki, Arunima, Delhi Princess, Himangini, Madhura, Mohini, Sindhur.
- Polyanthas: Anjani, Nartaki, Swati,
- Miniatures: Chandrika, Pushkala,
- Climbers: Akash pradip, Delhi white pearl.
Irrigation Methods Polyhouse Rose Farming
There are six different methods of irrigation as follows:
1) Hand watering: Used for potted plants using Hose pipe and shower.
2) Tube Method: Advanced and used for p a tted plant.
3) Over head Sprinklers: Advanced in which Nozzles are mounted on risers. Good for ground beds. Sprinklers can also be in suspended position above the plant.
4) Drip Irrigation: Also called ‘I’ Irrigation. In this method, the water is given to potted plants by drip method at the desired interval. During the early stage of crop growth, the irrigation was given up to four weeks with hose pipe for better establishment of roots afterward it was given with drip irrigation system provided with two laterals per bed. Drippers were fixed at 35 cm apart. Depending upon soil moisture and weather conditions, the beds were irrigated regularly to keep soil moderately moist.
5) Mist System: This system provides the water in the form of a very fine spray. The mists are produced from sprinklers fitted with nozzles having very fine nanopores.
6) Polythene tubing: In this method, the perforated plastic pipes are used to water the plants growing on the beds. The polythene tubing can also be used between the rows Micronutrients are given through irrigation system Pesticides are used by spray methods or through irrigation.
Fertilizer in Polyhouse Rose Farming
Fertilizers (N, P, and K) were applied as basal application up to 35 days after planting and afterward it was given through fustigation. The fustigation schedule which was followed for rose production under protected cultivation is as follows.
- After planting, N: P: K – 1:1:1 (19:19:19) was applied @ 0.5 g per plant alternate day during the vegetative stage.
- After commencement of flowering N: P: K, 2:1:4 (15:8:35) @ of 0.5 g per plant.
- Foliar spray – Micronutrient (Miscrosol – A & B) @ 0.5 g per litre at weekly interval.
- Calcium nitrate [Ca (NO3)2] and magnesium nitrate [Mg (NO3)2] at 3 g each per litre per plant.
Where and How to Prune In Polyhouse Rose Farming
Every rose stem has eyes (buds) alternating on opposite sides, usually outward and inward. The basic rule in pruning is always to make the cut at about half a centimeter above a vigorous bud that point in the direction one desires the new shoot to grow.
Since a bush rose is to be kept open in the center, the cut is made at an outward growing bud whereas in case of climbing rose, the pruning is done at a bud pointing more or less upwards. Whichever bud is selected, the cut should be slightly slanting. A horizontal cut retains moisture and, therefore is liable to cause fungal growth. While making the cut, care should be taken not to make it too high above the eye as there may be the chance of dieback of the shoot. If the cut is, on the other hand, very near the eye, the bud may die for want of sap flow. It is absolutely necessary to cut sharp and clean. Broken tissues, bruises or hanging shreds of bark are an invitation to pests and diseases.
Weeding and Plant Protection Measures Polyhouse Rose Farming
The entire beds were kept weed free by hand weeding at regular intervals. The scraping of the bed was done once in a month. Diseases like die back were managed by smearing blitox paste (0.2%) and powdery mildew by spraying the plants with wettable sulphur, bavistin, score, and tilt. The pests like bud borers, thrips and mites were controlled by spraying with suitable insecticides like lannate, rogor, nuvacron, vertimac and acephate, etc.
Harvesting In Polyhouse Rose Farming
Flowers were harvested when calyx was refluxed the and the first petal started opening out (tight bud stage), leaving four nodes from the base of the shoot. Secateurs. The general rule observed by the most rose growers in cutting the stem is to allow two five-leaflet leaves to remain below the cut.
Yield in Polyhouse Rose Farming
The yield of the cut flower depends on a number of factors like cultivar, plant density per unit area, flower quality, duration of flowering, pruning, fertilization and other cultural practices adopted from time to time.
In case of Hybrid Teas and Floribundas, 15.5 long stemmed cut blooms from one square meter are obtained in open field conditions in India, as against 154 cut flowers per square meter in Europe in glasshouse conditions.