Profitable Quail Farming Business For Beginners

Profitable Quail Farming Business.
Profitable Quail Farming Business.

Profitable Quail Farming Business

The following is all about Profitable Quail Farming Business.

Introduction to Profitable Quail Farming Business

Quails are small ground-nesting game birds that are found in woodland and grasslands in the wild. There are 45 different species that are spread across throughout the world. Quails belong to the pheasant family Phasianidae and their scientific name is Coturnix. The birds have streaked brown, black, white, and blue in colors and the males have a white chin. Quails come in different sizes and depending on the species their height range from 10 cm to 25 cm tall while with a wingspan of about 30 cm to 37 cm and weigh about 70 grams to 140 grams. These birds in natural habitat are solitary birds and sometimes found in pairs with just one other quail. The lifespan of the birds can range from three years to five years. Even though they can fly they are reluctant to fly and creep away and can reach a top speed of 24 km per hour. Though these birds are omnivores they mainly prefer vegetarian diet feeding on seeds, flowers, and fruits.

Quail farming business is popular in  Kenya, Uganda, South Africa, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India, USA, UK, New Zealand, Australia, Philippines, Kenya. When it comes to India, many people are showing interested in commercial quail farming in Kerala, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Orissa, and Madhya Pradesh.

Bobwhite Quails.
Bobwhite Quails.

Profitable Quail Business Farming:
Domestication of these birds dates back to 12th century in Japan while in India they were introduced in 1974. Farming of quails is done mainly for its nutritious meat and eggs. Raising of quails commercially is carried because of its protein-rich meat and easy raising of them as poultry birds. The quail business is a lucrative and easy to maintain farming business.  Unlike chicken poultry business, quail poultry business is also very profitable as it requires less investment and labor. Quail business is growing rapidly and more customers are preferring quail than chicken as quail eggs contain more A, B1, and B2 vitamins, protein, iron, phosphorous than chicken eggs. Along with other poultry farming, these can also be raised along with them. The demand for its meat and eggs is growing as its very tasty and nutritious when consumed.

Even the government is encouraging entrepreneurs through subsidies for this farming but a government license is required to sell Japanese quail commercially as this species comes under wildlife protected bird. An Indian quail lays about 90 to 110 eggs per year and a dressed bird will weigh up to 100 grams while a Japanese quail gives 250 to 280 eggs per year and meat about 200 to 250 grams. Quail eggs are spotted from white to brown in color and 1/5 size of a normal chicken egg and weighing about 8 to 10 grams.

Breeds of Quail:

  • Japanese Quail.
  • California Quail.
  • Button Quail.
  • Bobwhite Quail.
Japanese Quails.
Japanese Quails.

Advantages of Profitable Quail Farming Business:

  • Quail farming requires less floor space.
  • Quail farming requires low capital investment.
  • Quails will be ready by five weeks for marketing.
  • Quails attain maturity in laying eggs at about six to seven weeks.
  • Quails lay eggs at a high rate compared to other poultry birds and lay about 270 eggs per year.
  • Quail farming is very prolific and the generation interval is short.
  • Space and feed supply are less compared to other poultry birds.
  • Quails are highly disease resistant compared to other poultry.
  • Quail eggs and meat are a nutritious diet for pregnant and lactating mothers.
  • Quail eggs and meat promotes body and brain development in children.
  • Quail eggs hatch in about 14 to 18 days through incubation.
  • Quails grow fast and are tasty and nutritious food.
  • Quails meat and eggs contain less fat.
  • Quails are hardy birds and require no vaccination.
  • Quails are well adapted to Indian climatic conditions.

Why Profitable Quail Farming Business?

Quail farming, unlike other poultry and livestock farming, needs low investment, low labor, and less space. Quail birds are small and easy to handle and easy to establish a farm. They are hardy birds, with less feed consumption and produce generous income. By five weeks the birds will be ready for consumption and marketing. They are perfect poultry products for urban areas and provide good protein and nutrition to the body.

Quail Farm.
Quail Farm.

Getting Started with a Profitable Quail Farming Business

Commercial quail farming is solely based on its eggs and meat as this business has potential to generate income within a short period of time. For a successful business and for huge income profits one must have some basic training about the bird’s characteristics and their life cycle. Even if it’s a small farming or a big farming business, a proper quail farming business plan must be prepared and it must include bird breeds, feeding, housing, care, labor, capital investment, and marketing strategies. Having a decent business plan, you need to register your farm and acquire licensing to sell quail birds depending on the local authorities licensing act.

Breed Selection in Profitable Quail Farming Business

Breed selection plays an important role that will affect the production and value of your business. Before investing in purchasing the birds, one must have deep clarity on what breeds must be taken and their purpose. While in some quail farming business they prefer raising multiple breeds for meat and egg production to balance the market demand. It is recommended to choose White Breasted Indian and Bob White American breeds (broiler breeds) for meat production and Pharaoh, Tuxedo, English White, Manchurian Golden, British Range breeds (layer breeds) for egg production. After choosing what breed or breeds to raise, list out the best breed suppliers before placing an order. Birds of 10 to 30 weeks old are idle for breeding as during this age period birds fertility remains maximum and starts declining after 30 weeks.

King Quail Birds.
King Quail Birds.

Feeding in Profitable Quail Farming Business

Feed management is very important, especially for commercial growers. Provide balanced diet for healthy, productive, and proper bird growth that results in a high return on investment. The birds can be fed with the same feed that’s provided to other poultry birds but usually, their intake will be low compared with other poultry birds. An adult bird can consume 30 to 35 grams while a starter and grower birds consume less than 25 grams per day. Each feed must contain adequate proteins, minerals, vitamins, and nutrients. For a starter and grower bird must contain 24 to 27% protein while an adult must have 20 to 24% protein content. Calcium about 0.8% for starter and 0.6% for grower and adult while adult layer birds must contain 3.0% calcium. Phosphorus must contain 0.3% for all ages and 0.45% for adult layer birds. A feed diet must contain a mixture of broken wheat, sesame cake, kipper fish, rice bran, salt, broken oyster shell, mineral mix in the ratio ( 48 to 50%, 22 to 23%, 16 to 20%, 6 to 8%, 0.5%, 2.25 to 3.25%, and 0.25% respectively) for starter (less than 3 weeks) and grower birds(4 to 5 weeks). For an adult bird the feed diet is as follows (50%, 22 %, 14%, 9%, 0.5%, 4.25%, and 0.25% respectively).

Housing Management in Profitable Quail Farming Business

For optimum quail breeding and for-profits, quail housing must have a room temperature of 16° to 21° C and with 50% to 70% humidity. Quail birds are housed or reared in litter system or in cages.

Litter system of Profitable Quail Farming Business:
In deep litter system, bedding off the floor can be of locally available materials used. A layer of 10 cm thick dry poultry litter must be used. The house must be well ventilated away from sound pollution and dust free. Birds must be safe from dogs, cats, rodents, and other predatory animals.  In deep litter system, four weeks old bird requires 140 to 150 sq. cm while five weeks and above bird requires 250 sq. cm free space, at this spacing about 70 birds can be raised in one square meter house spacing.For best breeding, it is preferred to house 1:3-4 ratio of male to female birds. In this system there is a chance for egg loss as the birds tend to lay eggs inside the litter and eggs must be collected two to three times a day.

Cage System of Profitable Quail Farming Business:
Quails by nature are territorial and defend their territories from other new entrants hence cage system works out well in quail farming business. Cage system brings out optimum production in commercial farming along with hygiene and sanitation which is must in quail farming. For a pair of quails, they require 13 x 20 cm cage. In a cage size of about 120 x 60 x 25 cm, 30 to 40 birds can be housed. For best breeding, it is preferred to house 1:3 ratio of male to female birds. In the same way, multiple tiers can be arranged to house a number of birds and tiers can be up to five to seven tiers. Each tier must contain feed and water trough provision of 2 cm and 1 cm for less than three weeks old birds and 3 cm and 1.5 cm for birds above three weeks old respectively. Farmers who are raising birds commercially for meat production must provide round the clock lighting as this helps in early growth and 14 to 18 hours lighting for egg production. Ensure extra lighting is provided to birds in winter and rainy seasons.

Egg Incubation in Profitable Quail Farming Business

Quail Eggs.
Quail Eggs.

Quails by nature do not incubate their eggs hence eggs must be incubated for hatching their eggs. Regular incubators used for poultry eggs hatching must be slightly modified for quail eggs for their size. A wire mesh with a grid size of 1.5 x 1 inch must be used on the setter trays to hold the eggs. Quails lay eggs around three to six in the evening hours. Since the egg shells are very thin and delicate, hence care must be given while handling them. For incubation, defectless and sound eggs must be selected. Collected eggs must be fumigated before incubation. Eggs are subjected to formaldehyde gas for about 15 to 20 minutes. It takes about 14 to 18 days for eggs to hatch at a temperature of 37° C and with 70% humidity.

Care Management in Profitable Quail Farming Business

Newborn Chicks Care in Profitable Quail Farming Business:
The first week of chicks after hatching is crucial and taking care of them is very important. Newly born chicks weigh around 6 to 8 grams and are very delicate and sensitive. Chick mortality may be reduced when proper care and good management practices are followed. Chicks are transferred to brooder house that contains lighting 24 x 7 after hatching. Light helps in reducing collapsing of chicks due to hurdling and stampede. Care must be given by providing small pebbles or corrugated paper inside the waterer to avoid drowning. Avoid stampeding by providing about 140 to 150 chicks in one brooder. Each brooder must contain heater or bulb to generate heat. 37° C temperature must be maintained inside the brooder and can be reduced to 3° C for every four days. Battery brooding is recommended floor brooding in quail farming. Continue lighting till chicks attain five weeks as this will helps in early maturity and growth.

Health Care in Profitable Quail Farming Business:
Quails are hardy and do not need special health care, unlike chicken and turkeys. Vaccination and deworming are not required but proper cleanliness and hygiene must be provided. Avoid environmental stress such as hot temperature or heat stroke in summers and cold temperature in winters. Care must be taken by not providing environmental stress. As quails are territorial and some species are aggressive, ensure debeaking and nail cutting to avoid injuries and killing. Care must be taken to avoid overcutting of the beak as this will lead to lower fertility causing mating problems in males during mating.

Diseases in Quails:
Though quails are disease resistant to some of the infectious poultry diseases care must be taken. Proper management such as disinfecting the farm premises, drinkers, and other tools and equipment must be done. Provide clean drinking water and quality feed as it will reduce disease outbreak. Vitamin and mineral deficiency in feed leads to newly hatched chicks with lean and weak legs. Male quails tend to peck the other birds leading to blindness and at times birds death.Ulcerative Enteritis: This is an acute and highly contagious disease caused by Clostridium colinum bacteria. It can cause 100% mortality when not diagnosed and treated promptly. The infection spreads either by oral or transmitted from feces of affected birds. Treatment – Mix 50 to 100 ppm penicillin in the feed or mix 0.45 to 1.0 gram of streptomycin in one-liter water to be served for next three days will control the disease.

Marketing In Profitable Quail Farming Business

For a quail farming business to be successful and to run in profits, must have best marketing strategies. Advertising plays another important role in this business. Educate local customers about the health benefits and the importance of consumption of quail eggs that provide more protein and nutrients to the body through leaflets or banners in retail stores. Promote your products through online business and create awareness through social media. The early months must be spent in promoting and marketing the products in the local area which will lead to expanding your business and clientele. The other traditional promotions include advertisement in a local newspaper, posters, and flyers which are effective marketing methods to increase business and revenues.

Economics in Profitable Quail Farming Business

Project Report for profitable quail farming business under Battery brooding system.
This project report is to give entrepreneurs an overview of investment and revenues but not actuals revenue generation.

Capital Investment for profitable quail farming business:One time Investment

Construction cost of 250 sq. ft battery brooding @ Rs.95/- per sq. ft = Rs. 23,750

Construction cost of battery brooding for 10 partitions

Rs. 2,37,500
Equipment cost for 6700 birds @ Rs.6 per birdRs.40,200
Office setup cost 700 sq. ft @ Rs 95/ per sq. ftRs. 66,500
Total CostRs. 3,69,200

One Complete Cycle Expenses in Profitable Quail Farming Business

13,400 Chicks @ Rs.5.00 per birdRs. 67,000
Feed Cost for 13,400 chicks @ 500 gms per bird @ Rs.10Rs. 67,000
Cost of overhead bulbs and other expensesRs. 26,800
Total CostRs. 1,60,800

Cost of the Project in Profitable Quail Farming Business

Capital InvestmentRs.3,69,200/-
One Cycle ExpensesRs.1,60,800/-
Total CostRs.5,30,000/-
Cost per BirdRs. 40/-

 Operational Cost per Batch in Profitable Quail Farming Business

1675 Chicks @ Rs.5.00 per birdRs. 8,375/-
Feed Cost for 1675chicks @ 500 gms per bird @ Rs.10Rs. 8,375/-
Cost of overhead bulbs and other expensesRs.3,350/-
Total CostRs.20,100/-

 Revenue Generated per Batch in Profitable Quail Farming Business

Sale of 1500 Chicks (@10% mortality rate)          @ Rs. 20.00 eachRs. 30,000/-
Sale of quail manure @50 paisa per birdRs. 750/-
Miscellaneous income (gunny bags, etc)Rs. 250/-
Total CostRs.31,000/-

Total Cost of 40 Batches per Annum (20,100 x 40) = Rs. 8,04,000/-

Total Revenue of 40 Batches per Annum (31,000 x 40) = Rs. 12,40,000/-

Gross Profit per Annum in Profitable Quail Farming Business = Rs. 4,36,000/-

Conclusion of profitable quail farming business

The quail farming is a profit earning business and provides job opportunity directly and indirectly to many people. Quail farming is a simple business for its low maintenance and quality byproducts. Quail eggs are rich in nutrients and protein and the meat is one of the healthy poultry products having an array of health benefits. Entrepreneurs and existing poultry farmers will be able to get a high return on investment.

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