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Red Gram Cultivation Practices.
Red Gram Cultivation Practices.

Red Gram (Arhar Dal) Cultivation Practices

RED GRAM (Pigeon pea) GROWING

The following is all about growing Red Gram.

INTRODUCTION TO RED GRAM (Pigeon pea)

  • The scientific name of red gram is Cajanus Cajan. It is originated in India. The common names of red gram are Arhar, tur, redgram, congo pea, Gungopea, no eye pea.
  • Pigeon pea is the second most important pulse crop of India after chickpea.
  • It is the second most important pulse crop, next to gram. There are two species viz., C. cajan var. flavous–Tur (Early), C. cajan var bicolour–Arhar (late). It is primarily used as dal, while the tender green seeds are consumed as vegetable, crushed dried seeds as animal feed and green leaves as fodder.
  • Stem is used as fuel wood and to make huts and baskets, used for paper pulp. Leaves can be used to feed silkworm and plants are used to culture lac insect. It serves as windbreak and live fence. Venezuela local soft drink known as ‘Chicha’ is made and canned for export by freezing. It accounts for 12% pulse area, 17% pulse production and 90% world production.

INDIAN NAMES OF RED GRAM

  • English : Red Gram / Pigeon Pea.
  • Tamil : Thovarai / Thuvaram Paruppu.
  • Malayalam : Thuvara Parippu.
  • Telugu : Kandi Pappu.
  • Kannada : Thugari Bele.
  • Hindi : Arhar Dal.
  • Bengali : Arhar Dal / Moshoor.
  • Gujarati : Tuver Dal / Thuvare.
  • Konkani : Toree Daali.
  • Marathi : Tur Dal.
  • Oriya : Harada.
  • Punjabi : Tuar Dhal.
  • Tulu : Thogari Salai.
  • Kashmiri : Arhar Dal.

UTILITY OF RED GRAM

  • Dry red gram seeds should be dehulled and the split cotyledons (dal). These are cooked to make thick soup primarily for mixing with rice.
  • The ability of pigeon pea /red gram to produce economic yields under soil moisture deficit makes it an important crop of dry land agriculture.
  • The husk of pods after threshing is also used as cattle feed.

VARIETIES OF RED GRAM

  • UPAS-120.
  • Pant A3.
  • Prabhat .
  • ICPL 87 (Pragati).
  • ICPL 151 (Jagriti).
  • Pusa Ageti.
  • T21.
  • HY2.
  • Pusa 84.
  • HY 1.
  • HY 3A.
  • HY 5.
  • AS 71-37.
  • BDN 1.
  • S20.
  • C11.
  • Baha.
  • Laxmi.
  • Gwalior 3.

SOILS REQUIRED FOR RED GRAM

Red gram can be grown on a wide range from Sandy loam to clay loam. The crop performs well on fertile well drained loamy soils. Saline, Alkaline and waterlogged are not suitable. Well polarized soil is required for red gram cultivation.

CLIMATE REQUIRED FOR RED GRAM

Red gram is a quantitative short day flowering response plant i.e. the onset of flowering is hastened as day length shortens. It is grown throughout the tropical, sub-tropical & warmer regions of the world between 30° N & 35 °S latitude. It tolerates heat and drought. It thrives best in moist and warm climate during vegetative period and cool and dry period during reproductive stage. It is susceptible to frost. The cloudy weather and excessive rainfall during flowering damage the crop to a great extent.

SEASON REQUIRED FOR RED GRAM

The sowing time depends upon the duration of variety and rainfall pattern of the region, early sowing are always better.  The seed sowing should be planned in such a way that flowering and pod formation should not coincide with peak rainy period.

SEED TREATMENT IN RED GRAM

Seed treatment should be carried out with fungicides like Bavistin 1gram/kg seed captan or Thiram @ 2.5 grams/kg before sowing effectively controls fungi and reduces incidence of both seed and soil borne fungi. Seed treatment with Rhizobium culture can increase the yield up to 20 % to 30%.

SEED RATE IN RED GRAM

Seed rate requires in red gram is 25kg to 35kg. It depends up on the way sowing if it is broadcasting seed rate will increases and it is seed dill seed requires less.

CROPPING SYSTEMS IN RED GRAM

Intercropping- intercropping is agronomical practice which two crops A and B grow along with each other in same piece of land at same season.

  • Sorghum + pigeon pea.
  • Maize + pigeon pea.
  • Pigeon pea + groundnut.

Sequential cropping- sequential crop is agronomical practice which crop A grow and after the harvesting the A crop then B crop is sown on that same piece of land.

  • Pigeon pea – Wheat / mustard – green gram.
  • Pigeon pea + green gram (intercropping) then followed by wheat or mustard crops.
  • Maize – pigeon pea.

IRRIGATION IN RED GRAM

  • The critical periods for Irrigation are flower-initiation and pod-filling stages. Intensive cropping of pigeon pea can also be achieved under tube well irrigation, arising at a highest production of 4 tonns/ha.
  • The red gram can tolerant to drought condition but at the time of critical period the irrigation must be done.
  • Drip irrigation in red gram crop most favourable type of irrigation. It irrigated at directly on root zoon area by this it save water and electricity.

MANURES & FERTILIZERS FOR RED GRAM

In red gram the manures is given @ of 5 tons/ha of well-decomposed farm yard manure (FYM). Nitrogen should be applied @ 20kg/ha in long & medium duration varieties. Phosphorous is applied at the rate of 50 kg p2O5/ha for phosphorous deficient soils at sowing. Potassium is applied at the rate of 20kg k2O/ha for potassium deficient soils by placement at sowing.

Bio -fertilizers: for the early and effective nodulation, seed treatment with rhizobium is recommended in red gram.

WEED MANAGEMENT IN RED GRAM

  • Pigeon pea is a slow -growing crop during the first 6 to 8 weeks, and 2 harrowing during this period would be adequate to check weed growth.
  • The weed operation can be done by human labour by hand weeding.
  • The herbicides for weed management in red gram crop are preemergence application of Alachlor at the rate of 1.5 kg a.i/ha, Fluchloralin (Basalin) at the rate of 1.5 kg a.i/ha.

DISEASE AND INSECT PEST CONTROL IN RED GRAM

REDGRAM PLUME MOTH: – Exelastis atomosa; Spenarches caffer.

The damage results in the following symptoms

  • Small hole on seeds.
  • Dropping of flower buds and flowers in severe cases.
  • Completely eaten and devoured seeds.

Management

  • Collect the caterpillars by shaking shoots of the plant and destroy them in initial stages.
  • Apantels sp parasitise larvae.
  • You should use foliar sprays at the time of 50% flowering with endosulfan 2 ml/liter water or quinalphos 2 ml/liter water or carbaryl 3 grams/liter water.

REDGRAM POD FLY:- Malanagromyza obtuse.

Diagnostic symptoms are

  • Usually , the pod are going to be discoloured and they are visible in green podded cultivars.
  • At the later stage of infestation, the holes about 1mm in diameter covered with a thin membrane readily seen on the infested pod.
  • Exit holes visible after the adult emergence.

Management

  • Early sowing in endemic regions/areas.
  • Removal of affected pods of first brood during winter.
  • Pre-pupal stage is infested by Euderus agromyzae and pupa is infested by Euderus lividus.
  • Foliar sprays with monocrotophos 1.5 ml/liter of water or dimethoate 2 ml/liter ofwater are effective against larva and endosulfan 2 ml/liter of water against adult flies.

STEM FLY: – Ophiomyia phaseoli.

  • Maggot tunnels the stem and feeds on the internal contents. When the stem is split open the distinct tunnel can be observed along with excreta. Drooping of the first two leaves and wilting of the plants are observed due to the damage.
  • Growing varieties like LBG-611, LBG-402 are promising against stem fly, high seed rate, seed treatment with carbosulfan @ 40 grams/kg seed or thiamethoxam @ 4 grams /kg and foliar application of monocrotophos 1.6 ml/liter of water or acephate 1.5 grams/liter of water are effective measures.

REDGRAM COW BUG: – Oxyrhachis tarandus.

  • Nymphs as well as adults suck the sap from green stems in all stages of the plants which can cause corky tissues and excrete honeydew. This can attract ants like Camponotus compressus.
  • Spraying dimethoate 2 ml/l, methyl patrathion 2 ml/l or phosphamidon 2 ml/l is effective.

RED GRAM MITE: – Aceria cajani.

  • Generally, these disease can be identified from a distance and they look like patches of bushy, pale green plants without flowers or pods. Leaves are small, show a light and dark green mosaic pattern.
  • Foliar spray with dicofol 3 ml/l or wettable sulphur 3g/l in early stages of plant growth will control mite vector.

FUSARIUM WILT:- Fusarium udum

  • To control this disease, apply T. viride – 2.5 kg / ha + 50 kg of well decomposed farm yard manure (FYM ) or sand at 30 DAS (days after sowing the crop).

Sterility Mosaic Disease (SMD):

  • Pick out the infected plants in the early stages of red gram growth. By applying spray Fenazaquin @ 1 ml/lit on 45 and 60 DAS (days after sowing) as prophylactic spray.

Powdery mildew: Oidiopsis taurica

  • The controlling measurements by spraying carbendazim 1g/lit or Wettable sulphur 2.5g/lit.

Alternaria Leaf Spot: Alternaria alternate

  • The controlling measurements by spraying mancozeb 1 kg/ha.

HARVESTING, THRESHING & PROCESSING IN RED GRAM

  • The Redgram is said to be indeterminate in growth habit where the flowering goes on continuously over the months on the same plant. Flowering, unripe pods & already, developed pods at the same time Hence, on the plant will be seen the crop is harvested in 2-3 pickings. As part of the harvest, the whole plant should be cut after most of the pods are dried.
  • Then the plants are bundled and staked for one week for the purpose of post harvest ripening of unripe pods after that the dried pods are beaten with sticks and then the seed is separated.
  • Since seeds are consumed in the form of split cotyledons and Dal it is better to go for processing before storing.
  • Power operated hullers or processors are available for splitting of seeds in to dal.
  • The de hulled operation should be performed in two steps:
  1. The first step generally involves loosening the husk from Cotyledons of red gram.
  2. The second step involves removing the husk from Cotyledons and splitting them using a roller machine.

YIELD OF RED GRAM

For irrigated land the yield will be 15 kg to 18 kg quintals/ha, if it is rain fed area the yield at 10 kg to 15 kg quintals/ha and the red gram is grown as inter or Mixed cropping the expected yield will be 5 kg to 6 kg quintals/ha.

Read about Hydroponic Farming.

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