Introduction to Rose Apple Farming:
The following guide is about Rose Apple Farming / Java Apple Farming / Wax Apple Farming.
This Rose Apple is a dual purpose tree as it fruits and wood are useful for human beings. The Rose Apple fruits and the wood of the tree have a huge demand in the market. The fruit is extra tropical fruit. The Rose Apple belongs to the Myrtaceae family. The scientific name of the Rose Apple is Syzygium samarangense. The native place of the Rose Apple is the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Greater Sunda Islands and Malay Peninsula. These have originated in the forest of the Malaya. In the pre-historic times, the Rose Apple has spread to the parts of Asia and also the Philippines. But now – a – days the Rose Apple has become a common fruit in the countries like India, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Taiwan, and Vietnam. In India, Rose Apples are grown widely in states like Andhra Pradesh, Western Ghats, and Kerala. The fruit is commonly called as wax Jambu, rose Apple, Rose Apple, Semarang rose – Apple, Cloud Apple, Mountain Apple, Bell Fruits, Water Apple, Jamaican Apple, Champoo, Love Apple, Panneer Palam, Amrool and Safed jamun.
Characteristics of Rose Apple:
Rose Apple Plant:
This plant grows up to a height of 5 – 15 cm. The trunk is short and 25 – 30 cm in thickness and the tree widely spreads like a crown; it has pinkish- grey flaking bark.
Rose Apple Leaves:
Leaves are close to sessile; they are elliptic oblong in shape, rounded or a little cordate in at the base of the leaf. The leaves are yellowish – dark blueish green in colour. The length of leaf is 10 – 25 cm and width of the leaf is 5 – 12 cm. When we crush them, they are very aromatic.
Rose Apple Flowers:
On the tree the flowers grow to the tip of the branch like a drooping panicle of 3 – 30. They are fragrant, yellowish – white in colour, width of the leaf is 2 – 4 cm, with 4 petals, has numerous stamens of 1.5 – 2.5 cm long.
Rose Apple Fruit:
The outer skin of the fruit is waxy, light – red or greenish – white or cream in colour the shape of the fruit is pear in shape, the base is narrow, the upper part of the fruit is very broad. They are 3.4 – 5 cm long, 4.5 – 5.4 cm wide. It has very thick skin with white flesh, it is spongy, dry to juicy, and the flavour of the fruit is very bland.
Rose Apple Seed:
The fruit may contain 1 to 2 seeds, they are 0.5 – 0.8 cm wide or sometimes the fruit is empty without any seed.
Properties of Rose Apple:
The nutrients contained in Rose Apple are:
- Fat: 0.30 g
- Protein: 0.60 g
- Carbohydrates: 5.70 g
- Energy: 105 kcal
- Minerals: Iron, Calcium, Zinc, Phosphorous, and Magnesium.
- Electrolytes: Sodium and Potassium.
- It is rich in Vitamin C
Soil and climate requirements for Rose Apple Farming:
The soil that is suitable for Rose Apple Farming is deep – loamy soil. The soil should contain a little sand and also limestone so that the plant flourishes well. It requires fertile, well – drained organic rich soil. The pH level, which is preferred for Rose Apple Farming is 6.6 – 7.3.
The climatic regions that are considered good for Rose Apple Farming are tropical – Subtropical regions. They thrive well in warm climatic areas. The planting should be avoided in low lying and heavily shaded areas. The sea level for Rose Apple Farming is 4,400 ft. The maximum temperature, which is required for Rose Apple Farming is 24˚C – 27˚C. The Rose Apple plants can tolerate even frosty weather conditions. The tree grows well in full sun when given enough water.
Land preparation and planting for Rose Apple Farming:
Land which is selected for Rose Apple Farming should be cleaned by removing all the weeds, unwanted and old crop roots, pebbles, stones etc. Then the land should be supplied with manure; the soil should be ploughed to attain fine tilth and smooth texture. After ploughing, levelling and harrowing should be done. Water logging may cause damage to the crop so there should be good drainage in the field.
The spacing of the Java plants while planting them is 6 – 10 cm apart from each other. They should be cared more by fertilizing, irrigating, and eliminating the weeds.
Propagation method for Rose Apple Farming:
Collecting of Seeds:
During the fruiting seasons, the best seeds should be selected for using them as planting material. As, they have short viability they should be taken from the fruit and planted as early as possible. From the most desirable fruits each seed should be selected.
There is no need of special preparation of seeds. Seeds should be cleaned and all the flesh from it should be. By doing this we can avoid the fungal attack. No prior seed treatment is required before sowing the seeds.
The seeds should be planted to a depth of 4 cm in the nursery or directly in the main field. The germination period of the seed is 4 – 6 weeks. For fresh seeds the germination rate is high.
Manure and fertilization method in Rose Apple Farming:
The most recommended mixture of Rose Apple is:
|Age of the plant||FYM||Nitrogen||Phosphorous||Potassium|
|Year 1||10-30 kg||400-600 g||400-600 g||400-600 g|
|Year 2 – year 4||10-30 kg||700-900 g||700-900 g||700-900 g|
|Year 5 – year 6||10-30 kg||100-1200 g||1000-1200 g||1000-1200 g|
|Year 7 and after||10-30 kg||1200 g||1200 g||1200 g|
Irrigation methods in Rose Apple Farming:
The semi – arid conditions can be tolerated by the plant, but prolonged dry period may deteriorate the plant growth. Frequent irrigation should be given in warm seasons. In cold conditions the dry land can be irrigated at an interval of 7-9 days. Drip Irrigation System can be adopted for better utilization water and controlling the weeds.
Flowering and Pollination in Rose Apple Farming:
Usually inflorescences have terminal corymbs, that are 5 – 10 cm long, and they have 4 – 10 flowers. The flowers are showy, fragrant, bisexual; they are white in colour with a width of 4 – 8 cm and an inferior ovary. Visually, we can see them dominating 300 stamens that are 1.5 – 2.8 cm long with creamy white filaments.
Intercultural methods in Rose Apple Farming:
Weeding: Removal of unwanted, plants, shrubs is needed as they may harm the crop by spreading their roots, and also by spreading pests and diseases. These should be removed by machinery, manually or chemically. By using herbicides, these weeds can be destroyed.
Pruning: As close as possible the limbs and branches should be pruned.
Training: from the seedling itself the plant should be trained so that they look like a vase with some space in the centre. The main stem should be removed when the seedling reaches up to a height of 40 – 60 cm.
Thinning: The thinning should be done both in flowering and fruiting stages. The over grown branch should be cut to the end.
Pest and diseases control measures in Rose Apple Farming:
There is no serious problem of pest and diseases; they should be protected mainly from the aphids and ants.
Harvesting techniques in Rose Apple Farming:
Rose Apples bear heavily in good soil. After 5 years of plantation the tree gives a yield of 500 fruits. Twice or thrice in a week the fruits should be harvested manually. Regular observation is necessary else they may be over- ripened that may cause loss of the fruit.
Post harvesting techniques in Rose Apple Farming:
Cleaning: The fruits should be cleaned as there will be fertilizers on the outer skin of the fruit.
Sorting: They should be sorted as per their shape and size.
Grading: Grading is done as per the quality and colour of the fruit.
Storage: The Rose Apple can’t tolerate heat and humidity so once they are picked from the tree they should be stored either in cold storage room or in a refrigerator.
Pre Cooling: If possible, before transporting them, they should be pre-cooled at a temperature of 10 – 12 C.
Packing: As per the categories the packing should be done with cardboard boxes.
Marketing: Rose Apple has high demand in the local as well as international markets.
Yield in Rose Apple Farming:
The average yield of the Rose Apple is 21 – 85 kgs per tree. In the first year the yield may be low, but gradually it increases year after year.
Read: Growing Pears In India.