Sweet Orange Cultivation and Planting Methods:
The following information is about Sweet Orange Cultivation.
INTRODUCTION TO SWEET ORANGE CULTIVATION
The sweet Orange trees are small and reach a height of 25 ft, with a compact crown. Sweet orange tree leaves are evergreen with a length of 7 to 10 cm and width of 3 or 9 cm. The tree leaves are from elliptical to oblong to oval, with narrow wings on the leaf stems. Sweet orange trees produce excellent fragrant white flowers of 5 cm width. These flowers can be produced singly or in clusters. When it comes to sweet orange fruit, the width of the fruit typically ranges from 6 to 9 cm with an orange or yellow color. Sweet oranges are the 2nd largest citrus fruits grown in India. Citrus fruit cultivation and production occupy third place after banana and mango production. Sweet Orange is originated in southern China. Orange trees are widely cultivated both in tropical and subtropical regions for their sweet edible fruit. Sweet oranges can be eaten fresh or in the from the juice. It can also be used as the flavored agent. Sweet oranges account for approximately 65 to 70% of total citrus production in the world. Commercial cultivation of oranges is the best horticulture businesses as demand for this sweet fruit is very high in local and export markets. Cultivation of mandarin orange is rapidly increasing in India. There are many varieties of Oranges grown across the globe. Oranges can be grown in outdoors/open fields, backyards, and even containers. In the following content, let us learn more about how to grow sweet Oranges outdoor, Orange planting methods in outdoor, Orange plant care, and other Orange cultivation practices.
SCIENTIFIC / BOTANICAL NAME OF SWEET ORANGE
FAMILY NAME OF SWEET ORANGE
SWEET ORANGE IN INDIAN LANGUAGES
- English :
- Hindi: Santra / Narangi.
- Tamil: Oranju / Kichilipazham.
- Malayalam: Madhura Naranga.
- Telugu: Kamala Pandu.
- Bengali: Kamla Leboo.
- Gujarati: Santara.
- Konkani: Orange /
- Punjabi: Santra.
- Kashmiri: Sangtar.
SWEET ORANGES VARIETIES
There are many varieties of sweet oranges grown throughout the world. The following are some popular varieties.
- Valencia Late.
- Parson Brown.
- Blood Red.
- Nagpur Santra (Mandarin).
- Temple / Royal Mandarin.
- Sumithra mandarin.
- Coorg Santra.
- Khasi Santra.
- Batavian orange.
- Darjeeling Mandarin.
- Kinnow mandarin.
MAJOR ORANGE PRODUCTION STATES IN INDIA
- Madhya Pradesh.
- Andhra Pradesh /Telangana.
- Uttar Pradesh.
- Himachal Pradesh.
CLIMATE FOR SWEET ORANGE CULTIVATION
Sweet oranges prefer dry and hot climatic conditions. They can be grown both in tropical and sub-tropical environments. The favorable temperature of orange cultivation is 10°C to 30°C and annual rainfall is 50 cm to 100 cm. The preferred sowing temperature is about 15°C to 25°C.
SOIL REQUIREMENT FOR SWEET ORANGE CULTIVATION
Sweet orange cultivation can be carried out in a variety of soils. However, well-drained organic-rich deep soils such as alluvial, sandy loam to loam, red sand soils to black clayey soils texture are ideal. Better yields are expected in soil with a pH range of 6.0 to 8.0. Commercial orange growers should go for soil testing for finding suitability of the soil and nutrients present in the soil. The orange trees are sensitive to high concentrations of salts, hence it is recommended to avoid these kinds of soil. Though they orange trees require good amount water, they cannot withstand waterlogging. Providing or growing in well-drained soils is a must.
LAND PREPARATION FOR SWEET ORANGE CULTIVATION
Land should be prepared thoroughly for growing orange seedlings. It is essential to plough the land couple of times until it gets to fine tilth stage . You can also carry cross ploughing. Any clods should be destroyed, weeds and rocks should be removed to make the weed-free field. Finally, you can level the land before planting.
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SEASON FOR SWEET ORANGE CULTIVATION
Time of planting depends on region to region. For better root establishment, planting during monsoon season is the better option.
PROPAGATION FOR SWEET ORANGE CULTIVATION
Propagation of sweet orange can be done by seeds and vegetative method of T-budding. For higher yields and healthy growth, the budding plant material is used in commercial sweet orange cultivation. The rootstock is raised on nursery beds and transplanted in the field.
PLANTING AND SPACING IN SWEET ORANGE CULTIVATION
Dig pits size of 3 feet x 3 feet x 3 feet during land preparation. Expose these pits to the sun for a couple of weeks before planting. The orange trees should be planted 20 feet apart from each way. (20 feet plant-to-plant distance and 20 feet row-row-distance). The spacing of oranges should be adjusted based on variety, planting method, and soil type. In hills, high density of orange plantation is possible. Each pit should be added with 10 to 15 kg of well-decomposed farmyard manure (FMY) along with topsoil. You can also add single super phosphate (SSP) at the rate of 500 grams per Pit. Usually, it is better to plant 80 to 90 plants per acre whereas high-density orange plantation may accommodate up to 120 plants per acre. Make sure to purchase health sweet orange seedlings from certified nurseries only.
IRRIGATION FOR SWEET ORANGE CULTIVATION
Timely irrigation is very important sweet orange cultivation as they cannot survive in water stress areas. It needs heavy irrigation soon after planting in the field. Subsequent irrigation should be given after 4 days. However, the frequency of plant irrigation depends on soil moisture holding capacity, climate and plant age. in dry and hot climates, irrigation should be provided once in 3 to 4 days and in winter once in a week. Do not over water the plants as the roots may rot and eventually tree may die. Adopt a drip irrigation system as this can save you water and provide efficient liquid fertilizer application. Drip irrigation also controls the weeds in the field.
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MANURES AND FERTILIZERS FOR SWEET ORANGE CULTIVATION
Orange plants are heavy feeders and need timely manures and fertilizers. Apart from micronutrients, the following fertilizers should be provided based on plant age.
|Age of Tree||Fertilizers (Grams/Plant/Year)|
|Fourth Year & Beyond||600||200||100|
INTERCULTURAL OPERATIONS IN SWEET ORANGE CULTIVATION
- Weed Control: Manual weeding can be carried at the plant base and shallow cultivation can be done between the orchard rows. In case of severe weeds, use certified and recommended herbicides. Mulching can be done at tree base for controlling weed growth and soil temperatures, mulch materials like dry leaves can be used. Nowadays, in commercial sweet orange cultivation, plastic mulching is used.
- Intercrops: Gardeners can earn extra income by growing any legume crops like green gram, black gram. The ground nut can also be planted in interspaces. Growing these crops is possible during initial 2 to 3 years.
TRAINING AND PRUNING IN SWEET ORANGE CULTIVATION
Training and Pruning are essential in growing oranges for establishing a straight and strong framework. The orange trees should be trained to a single system. The shoots emerging from the portion below the bud union should be removed. Only 5 to 6 branches of wide angle with the main trunk should be allowed to grow. Centre of the tree should remain open and water sprouts and suckers should be removed during early stages of growth. At the time planting, if necessary seedlings can be provided with supports. This is very useful in windy areas. The pruning in pre-bearing trees may be carried out any time except in peak winters. Pruning of fruit-bearing trees consists of removal of dead, diseased, criss-cross and weak branches. Training of orange plant should be completed during 2 years of time so that plants attain a strong canopy.
PESTS AND DISEASES IN SWEET ORANGE CULTIVATION
Sweet oranges are more prone to many pests and diseases.
- Red Mites.
- Bud Mites.
- Brown Soft Scales.
- Citrus psylla.
- Citrus Whitefly.
- Fruit fly.
- Black fly,
- Bark eating caterpillar.
- Orange dog Caterpillars.
- Citrus Canker.
- Powdery mildew.
- Gummosis / Brown rot.
- Black Spot.
- Twig blight.
- Damping off.
- Root rot.
- Collar rot.
- Zinc Deficiency.
- Iron deficiency.
For accurate symptoms and treatments, contact horticulture department.
HARVESTING IN SWEET ORANGE CULTIVATION
Orange plants will become mature in 12 months. Commercial yielding can be expected from the 4th year of planting. Right time for harvesting is very important as early or late picking results in fruit quality. Sweet oranges should be harvested when they attain the right size and ripen. For Indian region, the following table shows the TSS: acid ratio and maturity time. The economic life of a sweet orange tree is about 25 years. The peak yield of fruits can be expected in 10 years old trees.
|Variety /Cultivar||Rind colour||TSS: acid ratio||Maturity time|
|Mosambi||Pale-yellow o whitish||30:1||In the month of November|
|Pineapple||Golden||14:1||In the month of December|
|Jaffa||Light orange||14:1||In the month of December|
|Blood Red||Fully red||14: 1||In the months of December to January|
|Valencia||Orange||10:1||In the months of February to March|
YIELD IN SWEET ORANGE CULTIVATION
The yield of sweet oranges is dependent on variety, soil, planting method, plant care, irrigation, climate, tree age and other orchard management practices. On an average, you can obtain 50 to 60 fruits per tree during initial years and after full establishment of an orchard, 400 to 500 fruits per tree can be expected.
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MARKETING OF SWEET ORANGE
Grading should be done based on fruit size and quality before sending them to local fruit markets.